Advances in Self-Consolidating Concrete Incorporating Byproducts

Natt Makul
Department of Building Technology, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Phranakhon Rajabhat University, Thailand

Series: Materials Science and Technologies
BISAC: TEC021000

Clear

$195.00

Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

eBook

Digitally watermarked, DRM-free.
Immediate eBook download after purchase.

Product price
Additional options total:
Order total:

Quantity:

Browse Wishlist
Browse Wishlist

Details

As a fundamental building material in modern times, concrete has been subject to continual development. It has evolved from a simple mixture of basic elements, i.e., hydraulic cement, water, and aggregates, to become a modern high-performance material — a material designed to respond to the environment and in some versions to preserve it. This book reflects the recent research developments in regards to concrete technology. As such, it focuses on the innovative high-performance concrete known as self-consolidating concrete (SCC). This kind of concrete has outstanding properties such that it can flow and become compact by its own weight without bleeding and with minimal reliance on energy. Originating in Japan in 1983 in response to a labor supply shortage in the construction industry, SCC requires less work to compact in the production process than conventional concrete does. That is, unlike conventional concrete, SCC can flow by its own weight and requires very little vibration to compact.

This book is for readers who want to become well-versed in the most important current research in the field of novel SCC. The book will be useful for students, researchers, concrete scientists and technologists, and practicing engineers. This book consists of eight chapters. Each chapter is comprised of an introduction, a discussion of the concept of the design and the concrete’s development, and the properties and testing of the concrete in fresh and hardened stages of SCC.

Clearly, the properties of concrete, especially SCC, have shown remarkable improvement in recent years, and the movement toward more environmentally sound production practices is also encouraging. The opportunity to offer a detailed account of SCC in this light constitutes the author’s principal reason for writing this book, which is itself the result of significant research. Despite his best efforts, though, it may be that the author’s account includes some errors, for which he takes full responsibility. Nevertheless, it has been the author’s great pleasure to write this book, which he hopes will prove useful to readers both in the context of research and in the context of practical applications of SCC.

The author thanks Phranakhon Rajabhat University under the project “Survey, Assessment and Development of Cementitious Potential of Byproducts Obtained from Biomass Power Plant in Thailand as Concrete Materials in the Production of Special Concrete” for providing financial support for this project. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

About the Author

Chapter 1. Self-Consolidating Concrete: Fundamentals and Characteristics

Chapter 2. Unitary Byproduct: The Use of Recycled Alumina as a Fine Aggregate

Chapter 3. Unitary Byproduct: The Use of Incinerated Sugarcane Filter Cakes

Chapter 4. Binary Byproducts: The Use of Limestone Powder during the Incorporation of Pb-Containing Cathode Ray Tubes

Chapter 5. Binary Byproducts: The Use of Fly Ash-Alumina-Based Materials

Chapter 6. Binary Byproducts: The Use of Combined High Volume Alumina and Fly Ash Waste

Chapter 7. Binary Byproducts: The Use of Unprocessed Lignite–Coal Fly Ash and Rice Husk Ash

Chapter 8. Binary Byproducts: The Use of Residual Rice Husk Ash and Limestone Powder

References

Index

Chapter 1

Ahmaruzzaman, M., 2010. A review on the utilization of fly ash. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 327–363.
Akram, T., Memon, S.A., Obaid, H., 2009. Production of low cost self–consolidating concrete using bagasse ash. Constr Build Mater. 23, 703–712.
American Concrete Institute, 2007. Self–consolidating concrete. ACI 237R–07, Farmington Hills, Michigan, United States of America.
American Concrete Institute, 2008. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary. ACI 318M–08, Farmington Hills, Michigan, United States of America.
American Society for Testing and Material, 2009. Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolans for Use in Portland–Cement Concrete. ASTM C311, Philadelphia, United States of America.
American Society for Testing and Material, 2011a. Standard Test method for Slump of Hydraulic–Cement Concrete. ASTM C143, Philadelphia, United States of America.
American Society for Testing and Material, 2011b. Standard test method for slump flow of self–consolidating concrete. ASTM C1611, Philadelphia, United States of America.
American Society for Testing and Material, 2011c. Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use as a mineral admixture in concrete. ASTM C618, Philadelphia, United States of America.
American Society for Testing and Material, 2012. Standard test method for scaling resistance of concrete surfaces exposed to deicing chemicals. ASTM C672, Philadelphia, United States of America.
Amin, N., 2011. Use of Bagasse Ash in Concrete and Its Impact on the Strength and Chloride Resistivity. J Mater Civ. Eng. 23 (5), 717–720.
Andrade, L.B., Rocha, J.C., Cheriaf, M., 2007. Evaluation of concrete incorporating bottom ash as a natural aggregates replacement. Waste Manag. 27, 1190–1199.
Andrade, L.B., Rocha, J.C., Cheriaf, M., 2009. Influence of coal bottom ash as fine aggregate on fresh properties of concrete. Constr Build Mater. 23, 609–614.
Asavapisit, S., Ruengrit, N., 2005. The role of RHA–blended cement in stabilizing metal–containing wastes. Cem Concr Compos. 27, 782–787.
Bai, Y., Darcy, F., Basheer, P.A.M., 2005. Strength and drying shrinkage properties of concrete containing furnace bottom ash as fine aggregate. Constr Build Mater. 19, 691–697.
Bartos, P. 1992. Fresh concrete properties and tests. Elsevier science publishers, Massachusetts, United States of America.
Beaupré, D., Lacombe, P., Khayat, K.H., 1999. Laboratory investigation of rheological properties and scaling resistance of air entrained self–consolidating concrete. Mater Struct. 32, 235–240.
Belaidi, A. S. E., Azzouz, L., Kadri, E., Kenai, S., 2012. Effect of natural pozzolana and marble powder on the properties of Self–consolidating concrete. Constr Build Mater. 31, 251–257.
Bjömström, J., Chandra, S., 2003. Effect of superplasticizers on the rheological properties of cements. Mater Struct. 36, 685–692.
Bouzoubaâ, N., Lachemi, M., 2001. Self–consolidating concrete incorporating high volumes of class F fly ash: Preliminary results. Cem Concr Res. 31, 413–420.
Bronzeoak Ltd. 2003. Report of the rice husk ash market study, United Kingdom.
Bui, V. K., Montgomery, D., Hinczak, I., Turner, K., 2002. Rapid testing method for segregation resistance of Self–consolidating concrete. Cem Concr Res. 32, 1489–1496.
Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET), 1980. High Volume Fly ash Concrete Technology: Fly ash status summary report in India prepared by CII, India and CANMET Natural Resources, Canada. www.hvfacprojectindia.com/Summary_ Report.pdf (accessed: 12.08.14).
Chandra, S., Björnström, J., 2002. Influence of cement and superplasticizers type and dosage on the fluidity of cement mortars–Part I. Cem Concr Res. 32, 1605–1611.
Chao–Lung, H., Anh–Tuan, B.L., Chun–Tsun, C., 2011. Effect of rice husk ash on the strength and durability characteristics of concrete. Constr Build Mater. 25, 3768–3772.
Chusilp, N., Jaturapitakkul, C., Kiattikomol, K., 2009a. Utilization of bagasse ash as a pozzolanic material in concrete. Constr Build Mater. 23, 3352–3358.
Chusilp, N., Jaturapitakkul, C., Kiattikomol, K., 2009b. Effects of LOI of ground bagasse ash on the compressive strength and sulfate resistance of mortars. Constr Build Mater. 23, 3523–3531.
Cordeiro, G. C., Filho, R. D. T., Fairbairn, E. M. R., Luis, M. M. T., Oliveira, C.H., 2004. Influence of mechanical grind on the pozzolanic activity of residual sugarcane bagasse ash. International RILEM Conference on Use of Recycled Materials in Building and Structure, Barcelona, Spain.
Cordeiro, G. C., Filho, R. D. T., Tavares, L.M., Fairbairn, E.M.R., 2008. Pozzolanic activity and filler effect of sugar cane bagasse ash in Portland cement and lime mortars. Cem Concr Compos. 30, 410–418.
Cordeiro, G. C., Filho, R. D. T., Fairbairn, E. M. R., 2009a. Use of ultrafine rice husk ash with high–carbon content as pozzolan in high performance concrete. Mater Struct. 42, 983–992.
Cordeiro, G. C., Filho, R.D.T., Tavares, L.M., Fairbairn, E.M.R., 2009a. Ultrafine grinding of sugar cane bagasse ash for application as pozzolanic admixture in concrete. Cem Concr Res. 39, 110–115.
Cordeiro, G. C., Filho, R.D.T., Fairbairn, E.M.R., 2009b. Effect of calcination temperature on the pozzolanic activity of sugar cane bagasse ash. Constr Build Mater. 23, 3301–3303.
Della, V. P., Kühn, I., Hotza, D., 2002. Rice husk ash as an alternate source for active silica production. Mater Lett. 57, 818–821.
Dinakar, P., Babu, K.G., Santhanam, M., 2008. Durability properties of high volume fly ash self compacting concretes. Cem Concr Compos 30, 880–886.
El–Dakroury, A., Gasser, M. S., 2008. Rice husk ash (RHA) as cement admixture for immobilization of liquid radioactive waste at different temperatures. J Nucl Mater. 381, 271–277.
European Federation of National Associations Representing producers and applicators of specialist building products for Concrete (EFNARC), 2002. Specification and Guidelines for Self–consolidating concrete, Farnham, Surrey, United Kingdom.

European

Federation of

National

Associations

Representing producers and applicators of specialist building products for

Concrete (EFNARC), 2005. The European Guidelines for Self–consolidating concrete, Farnham, Surrey, United Kingdom.
Fairbairn, E. M. R., Americano, B. B., Cordeiro, G. C., Paula, T. P., Filho, R. D. T., Silvoso, M.M., 2010. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits. J Environ Manag. 91, 1864–1871.
Felekoğlu, B., Tosun, K., Baradan, B., Altun, A., Uyulgan, B., 2006. The effect of fly ash and limestone fillers on the viscosity and compressive strength of self–consolidating repair mortars. Cem Concr Res. 36, 1719–1726.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 2014. Food and agricultural commodities production. http://faostat.fao.org/
site/339/default.aspx. (Accessed: 12.08.14).
Frías, M., Villar, E., Savastano, H., 2011. Brazilian sugar cane baggasse ashes from the cogeneration industry as active pozzolans for cement manufacture. Cem Concr Compos. 33, 490–496.
Gaimster, R., Dixon, N., 2003. Advance Concrete Technology: Processes. Butterworth–Heinemann, Elsevier, United States of America.
Ganesan, K., Rajagopal, K., Thangavel, K., 2007. Evaluation of bagasse ash as supplementary cementitious material. Cem Concr Compos. 29, 515–524.
Girish, S., Ranganath, R. V., Vengala, J. 2010. Influence of powder and paste on flow properties of SCC. Constr Build Mater. 24, 2481–2488.
Hamad, M. A., Khattab, I. A., 1981. Effect of the combustion process on the structure of rice hull silica. Thermochimi Acta. 48, 343–349.
Heidrich, C., Feuerborn, H. J., Weir, A., 2013. Coal combustion products: a global perspective. World of Coal Ash (WOCA) Conference, Kentucky, United States of America.
Hernández, J. F. M., Middendorf, B., Gehrke, M., Budelmann H., 1998. Use of wastes of the sugar industry as pozzolana in lime–pozzolana binders: study of the reactions. Cem Conc Res. 28, 1525–1536.
Hoffmann, C., Leemann, A., 2003. Homogeneity of structures made with Self–consolidating concrete and conventional concrete. 3rd International RILEM Symposium on Self–consolidating concrete, Reykjavik, Iceland.
Jiménez–Quero, V. G., León–Martínez, F. M., Montes–García, P., Gaona–Tiburcio, C., Chacón–Nava, J.G., 2013. Influence of sugar–cane bagasse ash and fly ash on the rheological behavior of cement pastes and mortars. Constr Build Mater. 40, 691–701.
Japanese Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE), 2007. Standard specifications for concrete structure–material and construction. JSCE guidelines for concrete No. 16. Tokyo, Japan.
Kannan, V., Ganesan, K., 2014. Chloride and chemical resistance of self compacting concrete containing rice husk ash and metakaolin. Constr Build Mater. 51, 225–234.
Kasemchaisiri, R., Tangtermsirikul, S., 2008. Properties of Self–consolidating concrete in corporating bottom ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregate. Sci Asia. 34, 87–95.
Khatib, J. M., 2008. Performance of Self–consolidating concrete containing fly ash. Constr Build Mater. 22, 1963–1971.
Khayat, K. H., 1999. Workability, Testing, and Performance of Self–consolidating Concrete. ACI Mater J. 96, 346–54.
Kim, H.K., Lee, H.K., 2011. Use of power plant bottom ash as fine and coarse aggregates in high–strength concrete. Constr Build Mater. 25, 1115–1122.
Kismi, M., Saint–Arroman, J.C., Mounanga, P., 2012. Minimizing water dosage of superplasticized mortars and concretes for a given consistency. Constr Build Mater. 28, 747–758.
Kosmatka, S. H., Kerkhoff, B., Panarese, W.C., 2003. Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures. 14th edition, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois, United States of America.
Libre, N. A., Khoshnazar, R., Shekarchi, M., 2010. Relationship between fluidity and stability of self–consolidating mortar incorporating chemical and mineral admixtures. Constr Build Mater. 24, 1261–1272.


Liu, M., 2010. Self–consolidating concrete with different levels of pulverized fuel ash. Constr Build Mater. 24, 1245–1252.
Loh, Y. R., Sujan, D., Rahmana, M. E., Das, C.A., 2013. Sugarcane bagasse – The future composite material: A literature review. Resour Conserv Recycl. 75, 14–22.
Makul, N., Agrawal, D. K., 2010. Microwave (2.45 GHz)–assisted rapid sintering of SiO2–rich rice husk ash. Mater Lett. 64, 367–370.
Mehta, P. K., 1978. Siliceous ashes and hydraulic cements prepared there from. Patent No. 4105459, United States of America.
Memon, S. A., Shaikh, M. A., Akbar, H., 2011. Utilization of Rice Husk Ash as viscosity modifying agent in Self Compacting Concrete. Constr Build Mater. 25, 1044–1048.
Montakarntiwong, K., Chusilp, N., Tangchirapat, W., Jaturapitakkul, C., 2013. Strength and heat evolution of concretes containing bagasse ash from thermal power plants in sugar industry. Mater Des. 49, 414–420.
Muthadhi, A., Kothandaraman, S., 2010. Optimum production conditions for reactive rice husk ash. Mater Struct. 43, 1303–1315.
Naik, T. R., Kumar, R., Ramme, B.W., Canpolat, F., 2012. Development of high–strength, economical self–consolidating concrete. Constr Build Mater. 30, 463–469.
Nair, D. G., Jagadish, K.S., Fraaij, A., 2006. Reactive pozzolanas from rice husk ash: An alternative to cement for rural housing. Cem Concr Res. 36, 1062–1071.
Okamura H., 1997. Self–consolidating high performance concrete. ACI Concr Int., 19(7): 50–54.
Okamura, H., Ouchi, M., 2003. Application of Self–consolidating concrete in Japan. 3rd International RILEM Symposium on Self–consolidating concrete, Reykjavik, Iceland.
Ouchi, M., Nakamura, S. A., Osterberg, T., Hallberg, S. E., Lwin, M., 2003. Applications of Self–consolidating concrete in Japan, Europe and The united states. 5th International Symposium High Performance Computing–ISHPC, Tokyo, Japan.
Pathak, N., Siddique, R., 2012. Properties of self–consolidating–concrete containing fly ash subjected to elevated temperatures. Constr Build Mater. 30, 274–280.
Pedersen, K. H., Jensen, A. D., Skjøth–Rasmussen, M. S., Dam–Johansen, K., 2008. A review of the interference of carbon containing fly ash with air entrainment in concrete. Prog Energy Combust Sci. 34, 135–154.
Rahman, M.E., Muntohar, A.S., Pakrashi, V., Nagaratnam, B.H., Sujan, D., 2014. Self compacting concrete from uncontrolled burning of rice husk and blended fine aggregate. Mater Des. 55, 410–415.
Ravindrarajah, R.S., Siladyi, D., Adamopoulos, B., 2003. Development of high–strength Self–consolidating concrete with reduced segregation potential. 3rd International RILEM Symposium on Self–consolidating concrete, Reykjavik, Iceland.
Roussel, N., Nguyen, T. L. H., Yazoghli, O., Coussot, P., 2009. Passing ability of fresh concrete: A probabilistic approach. Cem Concr Res. 39, 227–232.
Rukzon, S., Chindaprasirt, P., Mahachai, R., 2009. Effect of grinding on chemical and physical properties of rice husk ash. Int. J Miner Metall Mater. 16, 242–247.
Rukzon, S., Chindaprasirt, P., 2012. Utilization of bagasse ash in high–strength concrete. Mater Des. 34, 45–50.
Safawi, M. I., Iwaki, I., Miura, T., 2004. The segregation tendency in the vibration of high fluidity concrete. Cem Concr Res. 34, 219–226.
Safiuddin, Md., FitzGerald, G.R., West, J.S., Soudki, K.A., 2006. Air–void stability in fresh self–consolidating concretes incorporating rice husk ash. in: Pandey, M., Wei–Chau, X., Lei, X. (Eds.), Advances in Engineering Structures, Mechanics & Construction, Springer, The Netherlands, pp.129–138.
Safiuddin, Md., West, J.S., Soudki, K.A., 2010. Hardened properties of self–consolidating high performance concrete including rice husk ash. Cem Concr Compos. 32, 708–717.
Safiuddin, Md., West, J. S., Soudki, K. A., 2011. Flowing ability of the mortars formulated from Self–consolidating concretes incorporating rice husk ash. Constr Build Mater. 25, 973–978.
Safiuddin, Md., West, J. S., Soudki, K. A., 2012. Properties of freshly mixed self–consolidating concretes incorporating rice husk ash as a supplementary cementing material. Constr Build Mater. 30, 833–842.
Şahmaran, M., Yaman, Í. Ö., 2007. Hybrid fiber reinforced Self–consolidating concrete with a high–volume coarse fly ash. Constr Build Mater. 21, 150–156.
Şahmaran, M., Yaman, Í. Ö., Tokyay, M., 2009. Transport and mechanical properties of self consolidating concrete with high volume fly ash. Cem Concr Compos. 31, 99–106.
Sales, A., Lima, S. A., 2010. Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement. Waste Manag. 30, 1114–1122.
Sensale, G. R., Ribeiro, A. B., Gonçalves, A., 2008. Effects of RHA on autogenous shrinkage of Portland cement pastes. Cem Concr Compos. 30, 892–897.
Siddique, R., 2010. Utilization of coal combustion by–products in sustainable construction materials. Resour Conserv Recycl. 54, 1060–1066.
Siddique, R., 2011. Properties of Self–consolidating concrete containing class F fly ash. Mater Des. 32, 1501–1507.
Siddique, R., Aggarwal, P, Aggarwal, Y., 2012. Influence of water/powder ratio on strength properties of self–consolidating concrete containing coal fly ash and bottom ash. Constr Build Mater. 29, 73–81.
Siddique, R., 2013. Compressive strength, water absorption, sorptivity, abrasion resistance and permeability of self–consolidating concrete containing coal bottom ash. Constr Build Mater. 47, 1444–1450.
Singh, N. B., Singh, V. D., Rai, S., 2000. Hydration of bagasse ash–blended Portland cement. Cem Concr Res. 30, 1485–1488.
Singh, M., Siddique, R., 2013. Effect of coal bottom ash as partial replacement of sand on properties of concrete. Resources Resour Conserv Recycl. 72, 20–32.
Singh, M., Siddique, R., 2014. Strength properties and micro–structural properties of concrete containing coal bottom ash as partial replacement of fine aggregate. Constr Build Mater. 50, 246–256.
Skarendahl A., 2000. Definitions. Report 23: Self–consolidating concrete – State–of–the–Art report of RILEM Technical Committee 174–SCC, RILEM Publications, Bagneux, France.
Sonebi, M., Bartos, P. J. M., 2002. Filling ability and plastic settlement of Self–consolidating concrete. Mater Struct. 35, 462–469.
Sua–iam, G., Makul, N., 2013a. Use of increasing amounts of bagasse ash waste to produce self–consolidating concrete by adding limestone powder waste. J Clean Prod. 57, 308–319.
Sua–iam, G., Makul, N., 2013b. Utilization of limestone powder to improve the properties of self–consolidating concrete incorporating high volumes of untreated rice husk ash as fine aggregate. Constr Build Mater. 38, 455–464.
Sua–iam, G., Makul, N., 2014. Utilization of high volumes of unprocessed lignite–coal fly ash and rice husk ash in self–consolidating concrete. J Clean Prod. 78, 184–194.
Tangtermsirikul, S., Khayat, K.H., 2000. Fresh concrete properties. Report 23: Self–consolidating concrete – State–of–the–Art report of RILEM Technical Committee 174–SCC, RILEM Publications, Bagneux, France.
Tantawy, M. A., El–Roudi, A. M., Salem, A. A., 2012. Immobilization of Cr(VI) in bagasse ash blended cement pastes. Constr Build Mater. 30, 218–223.
Tregger, N., Gregori, A., Ferrara, L., Shah, S. 2012. Correlating dynamic segregation of self–consolidating concrete to the slump–flow test. Constr Build Mater. 28, 499–505.
Tuan, N. V., Ye, G., Breugel, K.V., Fraaij, A. L. A., Dai, B. D., 2011. The study of using rice husk ash to produce ultra high performance concrete. Constr Build Mater. 25, 2030–2035.
United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1992. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. EPA Test Method 1311, Washington, DC, United States of America.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2014. Bottom ash. http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/ imr/ccps/bottomash.htm. (accessed: 12.08.14).
Uysal, M., Yilmaz, K., Ipek, M., 2012. Properties and behavior of Self–consolidating concrete produced with GBFS and FA additives subjected to high temperatures. Constr Build Mater. 28, 321–326.
Van, V. T. A., Rößler, C., Bui, D. D., Ludwig, H.M., 2013. Mesoporous structure and pozzolanic reactivity of rice husk ash in cementitious system. Constr Build Mater. 43, 208–216.
Wang, S. Y., Vipulanandan, C., 1996. Leachability of lead from solidified cement–fly ash binders. Cem Concr Res. earch, 26, 895–905.
Weng, C. H., Huang, C. P., 1994. Treatment of metal industrial wastewater by fly ash and cement fixation. J Environ Eng. 120 (6), 1470–1487.
Wesche, K., 1991. Fly ash in concrete: Properties and Performance. Chapman & Hall, London, United Kingdom.
Xie, Y., Liu, B., Yin, J., Zhou, S., 2002. Optimum mix parameters of high–strength Self–consolidating concrete with ultrapulverized fly ash. Cem Concr Res. 32, 477–480.
Yahia, A., Tanimura, M., Shimoyama, Y., 2005. Rheological properties of highly flowable mortar containing limestone filler–effect of powder content and water-cement ratio. Cem Concr Res. 35, 532–539.
Yu, Q., Nagataki, T. S., Linc, J., Saeki, T., Hisada, M., 2005. The leachability of heavy metals in hardened fly ash cement and cement–solidified fly ash. Cem Concr Res. 35, 1056–1063.
Zain, M. F. M., Islam, M. N., Mahmud, F., Jamil, M., 2011. Production of rice husk ash for use in concrete as a supplementary cementitious material. Constr Build Mater. 25, 798–805.
Zhang, Y., Wang, Z., Xu, X., Chen, Y., Qi, T, 1999. Recovery of heavy metals from electroplating sludge and stainless steel pickle waste liquid by ammonia leaching method. J Environ Sci. China, 11(3), 381–384.
Zerbino, R., Barragán, B., Garcia, T., Agulló, L., Gettu, R., 2009. Workability tests and rheological parameters in Self–consolidating concrete. Mater Struct. 42, 947–960.
Zerbino, R., Giaccio, G., Isaia, G.C., 2011. Concrete incorporating rice–husk ash without processing. Constr Build Mater. 25, 371–378.
Zhu, W., Gibbs, J. C., Bartos, P. J. M., 2001. Uniformity of in situ properties of Self–consolidating concrete in full–scale structural elements. Cem Concr Compos. 23, 57–64.

Chapter 2

Ali EE, Al–Tersawy SH. Recycled glass as apartial replacement for fine aggregate in self–consolidating concrete. Constr Build Mater 2012; 35:785–791.
Arimanwa JI, Onwuka DO, Arimanwa MC, Onwuka US. Prediction of the Compressive Strength of Aluminum Waste–Cement Concrete Using Scheffe’s Theory. J Mater Civ Eng 2012; 24(2):177–183.
ASTM C138 Standard Test Method for Density (“Unit Weight”), Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
ASTM C150 Standard specification for Portland cement. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.01. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2009.
ASTM C1611 Standard test method for slump flow of self–consolidating concrete. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
ASTM C1621 Standard test method for passing ability of self–consolidating concrete by j–ring. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
ASTM C231 Standard test method for air content of freshly mixed concrete by the pressure method. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
ASTM C33 Standard specification for concrete aggregates. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
ASTM C39 Standard test method for compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
ASTM C494 Standard specification for chemical admixtures for concrete. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
ASTM C597 Standard test method for pulse velocity through concrete. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
ASTM C618 Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
Benson RE, Chandler HW, Chacey KA. Hazardous waste disposal as concrete admixture. J Environ Eng 1985; 111(4):441–447.
Buruiana DL, Bordei M, Diaconescu I, Ciurea A. Recycling options for used sandblasting grit into road construction. Recent Res Energy Environ Landsc Archit. November; 2011.
Carlson JRJ, Townsend TG. Management of solid waste from abrasive blasting. Pract Period Hazard Toxic Radioact Waste Manage 1998; 2(2):72–77.
EFNARC. Specifications and guidelines for Self–consolidating concrete. February; 2002.
Elinwa AU, Mbadike E. The Use of Aluminum Waste for Concrete Production. J Asian Archit Build Eng 2011:217–220.
Evans NDM. 2008. Binding mechanisms of radionuclides to cement. Cem Concr Res 2008; 38:543–553.
Heath JC, Nelson B, Powell R, Means JL. Recycling spent sandblasting grit and similar wastes as aggregate in asphaltic concrete. Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center. December; 1998.
Madany IM, Raveendran E. Leachability of heavy metals from copper blasting grit waste. Waste Manage Res 1992; 10:87–91.
Madany IM. Utilization of copper blasting grit waste as a construction material. Waste Manage 1991; 11:35–40.
Naik TR, Kumar R, Ramme BW, Canpolat F. Development of high–strength, economical self–consolidating concrete. Constr Build Mater 2012; 30:463–469.
Nazari A, Riahi S, Riahi S, Shamekhi SF, Khademno A. Influence of Al2O3 nanoparticles on the compressive strength and workability of blended concrete J Am Sci 2010; 6(5):6–9.
Neville AM. Properties of Concrete, Fourth edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York; 1996.
Okamura H, Ouchi M. Self–consolidating concrete. J Adv Concr Technol 2003; 1(1):5–15.


Puertas F, Blanco–Varela MT, Vazquez T. Behaviour of cement mortars containing an industrial waste from aluminium refining Stability in Ca(OH)2 Solutions. Cem Concr Res 1999; 29:1673–1680.
Sua–iam G, Makul N. Utilization of limestone powder to improve the properties of Self–consolidating concrete incorporating high volumes of untreated rice husk ash as fine aggregate. Constr Build Mater 2013; 38:455–464.
U.S. Department of Health. Education and Welfare. Abrasive Blasting Operations. Final Report: Contract No. 210–75–0029. March; 1976.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Abrasive Blasting. Emission Factor Documentation for AP–42: Final Report. September; 1997.

Chapter 3

Adekunle S, Ahmad S, Maslehuddin M, Al–Gahtani HJ. Properties of SCC prepared using natural pozzolana and industrial wastes as mineral fillers. Cem Conc Compos 2015; 62:125–133.
Ahari RS. Erdem TK. Ramyar K. Effect of various supplementary cementitious materials on rheological properties of self–consolidating concrete. Constr Build Mater 2015; 75:89–98.
ASTM C138 Standard Test Method for Density (“Unit Weight”), Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia; 2015.
ASTM C150 Standard specification for Portland cement. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia; 2014.
ASTM C1611 Standard test method for slump flow of self–consolidating concrete. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia; 2015.
ASTM C1621 Standard test method for passing ability of self–consolidating concrete by J–ring. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia; 2015.
ASTM C293 Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam With Center–Point Loading). American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia; 2015.
ASTM C33 Standard specification for concrete aggregates. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia; 2015.
ASTM C39 Standard test method for compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2015.
ASTM C494 Standard specification for chemical admixtures for concrete. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia; 2015.
ASTM C642 Standard Test Method for Density, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia; 2015.
Chauhan MK, Varun, Chaudhary S, Kumar S, Samar. Life cycle assessment of sugar industry: A review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2011; 15:3445–3453.
EFNARC. Specifications and guidelines for self–consolidating concrete. European Federation of Producers and Applicators of Specialist Products for Structures; 2002.
Elyamany HE, Abd Elmoaty EMA, Mohamed B. Effect of filler types on physical, mechanical and microstructure of self–consolidating concrete and Flowable concrete. Alexandria Eng J 2014; 53:295–307.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Food and agricultural commodities production. http://faostat.fao.org/site/339
/default.aspx (16.8.13).
Gesoğlu M, Güneyisi E, Kocabağ ME, Bayram V, Mermerdaş K. Fresh and hardened characteristics of self–consolidating concretes made with combined use of marble powder, limestone filler, and fly ash. Constr Build Mater 2012; 37:160–170.
Gupta N, Tripathi S, Balomajumder C, Characterization of pressmud: A sugar industry waste Fuel 2011; 90:389–394.
Haoxin L, Jingcheng X, Jianguo W, Wei X, Yan X. Influence of Sugar Filter Mud on Formation of Portland Cement Clinker. J Wuhan Univ Technol–Mater Sci Ed 2012; 28(4):746–750.
Haoxin L, Wei X, Xiaojie Y, Jianguo W. Preparation of Portland cement with sugar filter mud as lime–based raw material. J Clean Prod 2014; 66:107–112.
Leemann A, Lura P, Loser R. Shrinkage and creep of SCC–The influence of paste volume and binder composition. Constr Build Mater 2011; 25:2283–2289.
Liu M. Incorporating ground glass in self–consolidating concrete. Constr Build Mater 2011; 25:919–25.
Long G, Gao Y, Xie Y. Designing more sustainable and greener self–consolidating concrete. Constr Build Mater 2015; 84:301–306.
Makul N, Sua–iam G, Characteristics and utilization of sugarcane filter cake waste in the production of lightweight foamed concrete. J Clean Prod 2016:126:118–133.
Ochoa George PA, Eras JJC, Gutierrez AS, Hens L, Vandecasteele C. Residue from Sugarcane Juice Filtration (Filter Cake): Energy Use at the Sugar Factory. Waste Biomass Valor 2010; 1:407–13.
Sadek DM, El–Attar MM, Ali HA, Reusing of marble and granite powders in self–consolidating concrete for sustainable development. J Clean Prod 2016; 121:19–32.
Sua–iam G, Makul N, Rheological and mechanical properties of cement–fly ash self–consolidating concrete incorporating high volumes of alumina–based material as fine aggregate. Constr Build Mater 2015; 95:736–747.
Sua–Iam G, Makul N. Utilization of coal– and biomass–fired ash in the production of self–consolidating concrete: a literature review. J Clean Prod 2015; 100:59–76.
Tennich M, Kallel A, Ouezdou MB. Incorporation of fillers from marble and tile wastes in the composition of self–consolidating concretes. Constr Build Mater 2015; 91:65–70.
Yadav RL, Solomon S. Potential of Developing Sugarcane By–product Based Industries in India. Sugar Tech 2006; 8:104–11.


Chapter 4

ASTM C33, 2011. Standard specification for concrete aggregates. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.
ASTM C39, 2011. Standard test method for compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.
ASTM C150, 2009. Standard specification for Portland cement. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.
ASTM C494, 2011. Standard specification for chemical admixtures for concrete. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.
ASTM C535, 2011. Standard test method for resistance to degradation of large–size coarse aggregate by abrasion and impact in the Los Angeles machine. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.
ASTM C597, 2011. Standard test method for pulse velocity through concrete. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.
ASTM C939, 2011. Standard test method for flow of grout for preplaced–aggregate concrete (flow cone method). American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.
Bartos, P.J.M., 2005. Self–consolidating concrete in bridge construction: guide for design and construction. Concrete Bridge Development Group. Surrey, UK.
Bentz, D.P., 2008. A review of early–age properties of cement–based materials. Cem Concr Res. 38 (2), 196–204.
Berkhout. F., Hertin. J., 2004. De–materialising and re–materialising: digital technologies and the environment. Futures. 36 (8), 903–920.
Cobbing, M., 2008. Toxic Tech: Not in Our Backyard. Uncovering the Hidden Flows of e–waste. Report from Greenpeace International. Amsterdam.
Corinaldesi, V., Moriconim, G., 2011. The role of industrial by–products in self-compacting concretes. Constr Build Mater. 25 (8), 3181–3186.
Domone, P.L., 2006. Self–consolidating concrete: an analysis of 11 years of case studies. Cem Concr Compos. 28 (2), 197–208.
EFNARC, 2002. Specifications and guidelines for self–consolidating concrete. European Federation of National Associations Representing producers and applicators of specialist building products for Concrete, Surrey.
Felekoglu, B., 2007. Utilisation of high volume of limestone quarry wastes in concrete industry (self –compacting concrete cases). Resour Conserv Recyc. 51 (4), 770–791.
Gaimster, R., Dixon, N., 2003. Self–consolidating concrete. Advance Concrete Technology: Processes. Butterworth–Heinemann, Oxford.
Galetakis, M., Alevizos, G., Leventakis, K., 2012. Evaluation of fine limestone quarry by–products, for the production of building elements–An experimental approach. Constr Build Mater. 26 (1), 122–130.
Guimaraes, M.S., Valdes, J.R., Palomino, A.M., Santamarina, J.C., 2007. Aggregate production: Fines generation during rock crushing. Int J Miner Process. 81 (4), 237–247.
Guy, Ch., Pera, J., 1998. Waste material used as additive in the production of cement. France patent number FR2774089.
Hischier, R., Wäger, P., Gauglhofer, J., 2005. Does WEEE recycling make sense from an environmental perspective? The environmental impacts of the Swiss take–back and recycling systems for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Environ Impact Assess Rev. 25 (5), 525– 539.
Hui, Z., Sun, W., 2011. Study of properties of mortar containing cathode ray tubes (CRT) glass as replacement for river sand fine aggregate. Constr Build Mater. 25 (10), 4059–4064.
Husson, S., Guilhot, B., Pera, J., 1992. Influence of different fillers on the hydration of C3S. 9th Int. Congr Chem Cem. New Delhi, India.
Ismail, Z. Z., Enas, A., Hashmi, A., 2009. Recycling of waste glass as a partial replacement for fine aggregate in concrete. Waste Manage. 29 (2), 655–659.
Khayat, K.H., 1999. Workability, Testing, and Performance of Self–Consolidating Concrete. ACI Mater J. 96 (3), 346–354.
Kim, D., Quinlan, M., Yen, T.F., 2009. Encapsulation of lead from hazardous CRT glass wastes using biopolymer cross–linked concrete systems. Waste Manage. 29 (1), 321–328.
Kou, S. C., Poon, C. S., 2009. Properties of self–consolidating concrete prepared with recycled glass aggregate. Cem Concr Compos. 31 (2), 107–113.
Kreng, V. B., Wang, H. T., 2009. A technology replacement model with variable market potential–An empirical study of CRT and LCD TV. Technol Forecast Soc Chang. 76 (7), 942–951.
Lairaksa. N., Moon. A. R., Makul. N., 2013. Utilization of cathode ray tube waste: encapsulation of PbO–containing funnel glass in Portland cement clinker. J Environ Manage. 117, 180–186.
Lee, C. H., Chang, C. T., Fan, K. S., Chang, T. C., 2004. An overview of recycling and treatment of scrap computers. J Hazard Mater. 114 (1–3), 93–100.
Lee, G. F., Jones–Lee, A., 2009. TCLP Not Reliable for Evaluation of Potential Public Health and Environmental Hazards of PCBs or Other Chemicals in Wastes: Unreliability of Cement–Based Solidification/Stabilization of Wastes. Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA.
Ling, T. C., Poon, C. S., 2012. A comparative study on the feasible use of recycled beverage and CRT funnel glass as fine aggregate in cement mortar. J Clean Prod. 29–30, 46–52.
Ling, T. C., Poon, C. S., 2011. Utilization of recycled glass derived from cathode ray tube glass as fine aggregate in cement mortar. J Hazard Mater. 192 (2), 451– 456.
Liu, M., 2011. Incorporating ground glass in self–consolidating concrete. Constr Build Mater. 25 (2), 919–925.
Menad, N., 1999. Cathode ray tube recycling. Resour Conserv Recyc. 26 (3–4), 143–154.
Méar, F., Yot, P., Cambon, M., Ribes, M., 2006. The characterization of waste cathode–ray tube glass. Waste Manage. 26 (12), 1468–1476.
Mueller. J.R., Boehm. M.W., Drummond. C., Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication. Waste Manage. 32 (8), 1560–1565.
Nnoroma. I.C., Osibanjo. O., Ogwuegbu. M.O.C., 2011. Global disposal strategies for waste cathode ray tubes. Resour Conserv Recyc. 55 (3), 275–290.
Noor, M. A., Uomoto, T., 2004. Rheology of high flowing mortar and concrete. Mater Struct. 37(8), 513–521.
Okamura, H., Ouchi. M., 2003. Self–consolidating concrete. J Adv Concr Technol. 1(1), 5–15.
Pal, D., Yost, K., 1993. Fixation and stabilization of lead in contaminated soil and solid waste. United State patent number 5193936.
Péra, J., Husson, S., Guilhot, B., 1999. Influence of finely ground limestone on cement hydration. Cem Concr Compos. 2 (2), 99–105.
Polley, C., Cramer, S. M., De La Cruz, R. V., 1998. Potential for Using Waste Glass in Portland Cement Concrete. J Mater Civ Eng. 10 (4), 210–219.
Poon, C. S., 2008. Management of CRT glass from discarded computer monitors and TV sets. Waste Manage. 28 (9), 1499.
Robinson. B. H., 2009. E–waste: An assessment of global production and environmental impacts. Sci Total Environ. 408 (2), 183–191.
Roussel, N., Le Roy, R., 2005. The Marsh cone: a test or a rheological apparatus? Cem Concr Res. 35 (5), 823– 830.
Ryan, J. A., Scheckel, K. G., Berti, W. R., Brown, S. L., Casteel, S. W., Chanley, R. L., Hallfrisch, J., Doolan, M., Grevatt, P., Maddaloni, M., Mosby, D., 2004. Reducing children’s risk from lead in soil. Environ Sci Technol. 19A–24A.
Şahmaran, M., Christianto, H. A., Yaman, İ. Ö., 2006. The effect of chemical admixtures and mineral additives on the properties of self–consolidating mortars. Cem Concr Compos. 28 (5), 432–440.
Shi, C., Zheng, K., 2007. A review on the use of waste glasses in the production of cement and concrete. Resour Conserv Recyc. 52 (2), 234–247.
Sing, C. P., Love, P. E. D., Tam, C. M., 2013. Review and exploration of river sand substitutes for concrete production in Asian countries. In: Chang, S.Y., Al Bahar, S.K., Zhao, J. (Eds). Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials, Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp. 115–117.
Sinha–Khetriwala, D., Kraeuchib, P., Schwaninger, M., 2005. A comparison of electronic waste recycling in Switzerland and in India. Environ Impact Assess Rev. 25 (5), 492– 504.
Topçu, I. B., Canbaz, M., 2004. Properties of concrete containing waste glass. Cem Concr Res. 34 (2), 267–274.
Townsend, T. G., Musson, S., Jang, Y. C., Chung, I. H., 1999. Characterization of lead leachability from cathode ray tubes using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. Report No.99–5, Florida center for solid and hazardous waste management, Gainesville.
Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Test Method 1311, 1992. Specifications of the Committee on Analytical Reagents of the American Chemical. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, USA.
US Environmental Protection Agency, 1999. General background document on cathode ray tube glass–to–glass recycling. EPA Office of solid waste. Washington.
Valcuende, M., Marco, E., Parra C, Serna, P., 2012. Influence of limestone filler and viscosity–modifying admixture on the shrinkage of self–consolidating concrete. Cem Concr Res. 42 (4), 583–592.
Vann, K. N., Musson, S. E., Townsend, T. G., 2006. Factors affecting TCLP lead leachability from computer CPUs. Waste Manage. 26 (3), 293–298.
Walraven, J., 2003. Structural aspects of self–consolidating concrete. In Wallevik, O. & Nielsson, I. (Ed.). PRO 33: 3rd International RILEM Symposium on Self–consolidating Concrete, 15–22.
Wang, H. Y., Huang, W. L., 2010. A study on the properties of fresh self–consolidating glass concrete (SCGC). Constr Build Mater. 24 (4), 619–624.
Williams, E., Kahhat, R., Allenby, B., Kavazanjian, E., Kim, J., Xu, M., 2008. Environmental, social, and economic implications of global reuse and recycling of personal Computers. Environ Sci Technol. 42 (17), 6446–6454.

Chapter 5

Ali EE, Al–Tersawy SH. Recycled glass as apartial replacement for fine aggregate in self–consolidating concrete. Constr Build Mater 2012; 35:785–791.
Arimanwa JI, Onwuka DO, Arimanwa MC, Onwuka US. Prediction of the Compressive Strength of Aluminum Waste–Cement Concrete Using Scheffe’s Theory. J Mater Civ Eng 2012; 24(2):177–183.
ASTM C138 Standard Test Method for Density (“Unit Weight”), Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
ASTM C150 Standard specification for Portland cement. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.01. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2009.
ASTM C1611 Standard test method for slump flow of self–consolidating concrete. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
ASTM C1621 Standard test method for passing ability of self–consolidating concrete by j–ring. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
ASTM C231 Standard test method for air content of freshly mixed concrete by the pressure method. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
ASTM C33 Standard specification for concrete aggregates. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
ASTM C39 Standard test method for compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
ASTM C494 Standard specification for chemical admixtures for concrete. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
ASTM C597 Standard test method for pulse velocity through concrete. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
ASTM C618 Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete. Annual book of ASTM standards vol.04.02. Philadelphia, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2011.
Benson RE, Chandler HW, Chacey KA. Hazardous waste disposal as concrete admixture. J Environ Eng 1985; 111(4):441–447.
Buruiana DL, Bordei M, Diaconescu I, Ciurea A. Recycling options for used sandblasting grit into road construction. Recent Res Energy Environ Landsc Archit. November; 2011.
Carlson JRJ, Townsend TG. Management of solid waste from abrasive blasting. Pract Period Hazard Toxic Radioact Waste Manage 1998; 2(2):72–77.
EFNARC. Specifications and guidelines for self–consolidating concrete. February; 2002.
Elinwa AU, Mbadike E. The Use of Aluminum Waste for Concrete Production. J Asian Archit Build Eng 2011; 217–220.
Evans NDM. 2008. Binding mechanisms of radionuclides to cement. Cem Concr Res 2008; 38:543–553.
Felekoğlu B. Effects of PSD and surface morphology of micro–aggregates on admixture requirement and mechanical performance of micro–concrete. Cem Concr Compos 2007; 29(6):481–9.
Heath JC, Nelson B, Powell R, Means JL. Recycling spent sandblasting grit and similar wastes as aggregate in asphaltic concrete. Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center. December; 1998.
Madany IM, Raveendran E. Leachability of heavy metals from copper blasting grit waste. Waste Manage Res 1992; 10:87–91.
Madany IM. Utilization of copper blasting grit waste as a construction material. Waste Manage 1991; 11:35–40.
Mehta PK. High–Performance, High–Volume Fly Ash Concrete for Sustainable Development. In: Proc Int Workshop Sustain Dev Concr Technol. Beijing: China; 2004. P. 3–14.
Naik TR, Kumar R, Ramme BW, Canpolat F. Development of high–strength, economical self–consolidating concrete. Constr Build Mater 2012; 30:463–469.
Nazari A, Riahi S, Riahi S, Shamekhi SF, Khademno A. Influence of Al2O3 nanoparticles on the compressive strength and workability of blended concrete J Am Sci 2010; 6(5):6–9.
Neville AM. Properties of Concrete, Fourth edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York; 1996.
Okamura H, Ouchi M. Self–consolidating concrete. J Adv Concr Technol 2003; 1(1):5–15.


Puertas F, Blanco–Varela MT, Vazquez T. Behaviour of cement mortars containing an industrial waste from aluminium refining Stability in Ca(OH)2 Solutions. Cem Concr Res 1999; 29:1673–1680.
Singh G. Siddique R. Effect of waste foundry sand (WFS) as partial replacement of sand on the strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity and permeability of concrete. Constr Build Mater 2012; 26(1):416–22.
Somna R, Jaturapitakkul C, Rattanachu P, Chalee W. Effect of ground bagasse ash on mechanical and durability properties of recycled aggregate concrete. Mater Des 2012; 36:597–603.
Sua–iam G, Makul N. Utilization of limestone powder to improve the properties of self–consolidating concrete incorporating high volumes of untreated rice husk ash as fine aggregate. Constr Build Mater 2013; 38:455–464.
U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Abrasive Blasting Operations. Final Report: Contract No. 210–75–0029. March; 1976.
U.S. Department of Labor. Abrasive Blasting Hazards in Shipyard Employment. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Guidance Document. December; 2006.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Abrasive Blasting. Emission Factor Documentation for AP–42: Final Report. September; 1997.
Yot PG. Méar FO. Characterization of lead, barium and strontium leachability from foam glasses elaborated using waste cathode ray–tube glasses. J Hazard Mater 2011; 185 (1):236–41.

Chapter 6

Al–Sayed, M. H. and Madany, IM., 1992. Use of copper blasting grit waste in asphalt mixes in Bahrain. Constr Build Mater. 6, 113–116.
American Concrete Institute, 2008. ACI 318 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary. Michigan, United States of America (USA).
American Society for Testing and Materials, 2009. ASTM C 150 Standard specification for Portland cement. Annual book of ASTM standards Vol.04.02. Philadelphia, United States of America (USA).
American Society for Testing and Materials, 2011a. ASTM C618 Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use in concrete. Annual book of ASTM standards Vol.04.02. Philadelphia, United States of America (USA).
American Society for Testing and Materials, 2011b. ASTM C494 Standard specification for chemical admixtures for concrete. Annual book of ASTM standards Vol.04.02. Philadelphia, United States of America (USA).
American Society for Testing and Materials, 2011c. ASTM C 33 Standard specification for concrete aggregates. Annual book of ASTM standards Vol.04.02. Philadelphia, United States of America (USA).
American Society for Testing and Materials, 2011d. ASTM C138 Standard test method for density (“unit weight”), yield, and air content (gravimetric) of concrete. Philadelphia, Annual book of ASTM standards Vol.04.02. United States of America (USA).
American Society for Testing and Materials, 2011e. ASTM C1611 Standard test method for slump flow of self–consolidating concrete. Annual book of ASTM standards Vol.04.02. Philadelphia, United States of America (USA).
American Society for Testing and Materials, 2011f. ASTM C1621 Standard test method for passing ability of self–consolidating concrete by j–ring. Annual book of ASTM standards Vol.04.02. Philadelphia, United States of America (USA).
American Society for Testing and Materials, 2011g. ASTM C39 Standard test method for compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens. Annual book of ASTM standards Vol.04.02. Philadelphia, United States of America (USA).
American Society for Testing and Materials, 2011h. ASTM C597 Standard test method for pulse velocity through concrete. Annual book of ASTM standards Vol.04.02, Philadelphia, United States of America (USA).
Aurich, J. C., Linke, B., Hauschild, M., Carrella, M., Kirsch, B., 2013. Sustainability of abrasive processes. CIRP Annals Manuf Technol. 62, 653–672.
Basheer, L., Basheer, P. A. M., Long, A. E., 2008. Influence of coarse aggregate on the permeation, durability and the microstructure characteristics of ordinary Portland cement concrete. Constr Build Mater. 19, 682–690.
Buruiana, D. L., Bordei, M., Diaconescu, I., Ciurea, A., 2011. Recycling options for used sandblasting grit into road construction. Proceedings of the 4th IASME/WSEAS International Conference on Landscape Architecture (LA '11). pp.172–178, Angers, France.
Dinakar, P., Kartik–Reddy, M., Sharma, M., 2013. Behavior of self–consolidating concrete using Portland pozzolana cement with different levels of fly ash. Mater Des. 46, 609–616.
European Federation of Producers and Applicators of Specialist Products for Structures, 2002. Specifications and guidelines for self–consolidating concrete. Farnham, Surrey, United Kingdom (UK).
Evans, N. D. M., 2008. Binding mechanisms of radionuclides to cement. Cem Concr Res. 38, 543–553.
Felekoglu, B., 2006. Utilisation of Turkish fly ashes in cost effective HVFA concrete production. Fuel. 85, 1944–1949.
Girish, S., Ranganath, R. V., Vengala, J., 2010. Influence of powder and paste on flow properties of SCC. Constr Build Mater. 24, 2481–2488.
Heath, J. C., Nelson, B., Powell, R., Means, J. L., 1998. Recycling spent sandblasting grit and similar wastes as aggregate in asphaltic concrete. Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA, United States of America (USA).
Khayat, K. H., 1999. Workability, testing, and performance of self–consolidating concrete. ACI Mater J. 96(3), 346–353.
Khatib, J. M., 2008. Performance of self–consolidating concrete containing fly ash. Constr Build Mater. 22, 1963–1971.
Kismi, M., Saint–Arroman, J–C., Mounanga, P., 2012. Minimizing water dosage of superplasticized mortars and concretes for a given consistency. Constr Build Mater. 28, 747–758.
Kronlöf, A., 1994. Effect of very fine aggregate on concrete strength. Mater Struct. 27, 15–25.
Liu M., 2010. Self–consolidating concrete with different levels of pulverized fuel ash. Constr Build Mater. 24, 1245–1252.
Madany, I. M., 1991. Utilization of copper blasting grit waste as a construction material. Waste Manage. 11, 35–40.
Madany, I. M. and Raveendran, E., 1992. Leachability of heavy metals from copper blasting grit waste. Waste Manage Res. 10, 87–91.
Momber, A., 2008. Blast Cleaning Technology. Springer–Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York, United States of America (USA).
Naik, T. R., Kumar, R., Ramme, B. W., Canpolat F., 2012. Development of high–strength, economical self–consolidating concrete. Constr Build Mater. 30, 463–469.
Nazari, A., Riahi, S., Riahi, S., Shamekhi, S. F., Khademno, A., 2010. Influence of Al2O3 nanoparticles on the compressive strength and workability of blended concrete. J Am Sci. 6(5), 6–9.
Neville, A. M., 1996. Properties of Concrete, Fourth edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, United States of America (USA).
Okamura, H., and Ouchi, M., 1999. Self–consolidating concrete. Development, present use and future. In: Proceedings of the 1st international RILEM Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 3–14.
Poon, C. S., Lam, L., Wong, Y. L., 2000. Study on high strength concrete prepared with large volumes of low calcium fly ash. Cem Concr Res. 30, 447–455.
Siddique, R., 2011. Properties of self–consolidating concrete containing class F fly ash. Mater Des. 32, 1501–1507.
Siddique, R., Aggarwal, P., Aggarwal Y., 2012. Influence of water/powder ratio on strength properties of self–consolidating concrete containing coal fly ash and bottom ash. Constr Build Mater. 29, 73–81.
Skarendahl, A., 2000. Definitions. In: Skarendahl Å, Petersson Ö, editors. Report 23: Self–consolidating concrete–State–of–the–Art report of RILEM Technical Committee 174–SCC. RILEM Publications. pp. 3–4, Paris, France.
Sua–iam, G. and Makul, N., 2013. Use of recycled alumina as fine aggregate replacement in self–consolidating concrete. Constr Build Mater. 47, 701–710.
Sua–iam, G., and Makul, N., 2014. Utilization of high volumes of unprocessed lignite–coal fly ash and rice husk ash in self–consolidating concrete. J Clean Prod. 78, 184–194.
Tilghman, B. G., 1870. Improvement in cutting and engraving stone, metal, glass. United States patent US 108408, United States of America (USA).
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997. Abrasive Blasting. Emission Factor Documentation for AP–42: Final Report. United States of America (USA).
Zain, M. F. M., Islam, M. N., Radin, S. S., Yap, S. G., 2004. Cement–based solidification for the safe disposal of blasted copper slag. Cem Concr Compos. 26, 845–851.

Chapter 7

American Concrete Institute. 2008. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary. ACI 318M–08, Michigan, United States of America.
American Society for Testing and Materials, 2009. Standard Specification for Portland Cement, ASTM C150, Philadelphia, United States of America.
American Society for Testing and Materials, 2011. Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete, ASTM C618, Philadelphia, United States of America.
American Society for Testing and Materials. 2011. Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete, ASTM C494, Philadelphia, United States of America.
American Society for Testing and Materials. 2011. Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates. ASTM C33, Philadelphia, United States of America.
American Society for Testing and Materials. 2011. Standard Test Method for Density (Unit Weight), Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete. ASTM C138, Philadelphia, United States of America.
American Society for Testing and Materials. 2011. Standard Test Method for Slump Flow of Self–Consolidating Concrete. ASTM C1611, Philadelphia, United States of America.
American Society for Testing and Materials. 2011. Standard Test Method for Passing Ability of Self–Consolidating Concrete by J–Ring. ASTM C1621, Philadelphia, United States of America.
American Society for Testing and Materials. 2011. Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens. ASTM C39, Philadelphia, United States of America.
American Society for Testing and Materials. 2011. Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity through Concrete. ASTM C597, Philadelphia, United States of America.
Anwar, N., Nimityongskul, P., Austriaco, L.R. 2007. Thailand–development and applications of cementitious composites. CBM–CI International Workshop. 2007, Karachi, Pakistan. 295–303.
Arezoumandi, M., Volz, J.S. 2013. Effect of fly ash replacement level on the shear strength of high–volume fly ash concrete beams. J Clean Prod. 59, pp.120–130.
Barbhuiya, S. 2011. Effects of coal fly ash and dolomite powder on the properties of self–consolidating concrete. Constr Build Mater. 25(8), pp.3301–3305.
Barbudo, Auxi., de Brito J., Evangelista, L., Bravo M., Agrela, F. 2013. Influence of water–reducing admixtures on the mechanical performance of recycled concrete. J Clean Prod. 59, 93–98.
Blankendaal, T., Schuur, P., Voordijk, H, Reducing the environmental impact of concrete and asphalt: a scenario approach, J Clean Prod. (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.jclepro. 2013.10.012.
Chindaprasirt, P., Jaturapitakkul, C., Sinsiri, T. 2007. Effect of coal fly ash fineness on microstructure of blended cement paste. Constr Build Mater. 21(7), pp.1534–1541.
Chindaprasirt, P., Rukzon, S. 2008. Strength, porosity and corrosion resistance of ternary blend Portland cement, rice husk ash and coal fly ash mortar. Constr Build Mater. 22(8), pp.1601–1606.
Dinakar P., Reddy, M.K., Sharma, M. 2013. Behaviour of self compacting concrete using Portland pozzolana cement with different levels of coal fly ash. Mat Design. 46, pp.609–616.
Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT). Mae Moh power plant. (Accessed date: 25/May/2013).
European Federation of National Associations Representing for Concrete. 2002. Specifications and guidelines for self–consolidating concrete, Surrey; United Kingdom.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2012, Crop Prospects and Food Situation. FAO Corporate Document Repository, Rome, Greek.
Isaia, G. C., Gastaldini, A. L. G., Moraes, R. 2003. Physical and pozzolanic action of mineral additions on the mechanical strength of high–performance concrete. Cem Concrete Comp. 25(1), pp.69–76.
Kayali, O., Ahmed, M.S. 2013. Assessment of high volume replacement coal fly ash concrete–Concept of performance index. Constr Build Mater. 39, pp.71–76.
Khan, R., Jabbar, A., Ahmad, I., Khan, W., Khan, A.N., Mirza, J. 2012. Reduction in environmental problems using rice–husk ash in concrete. Constr Build Mater. 30, pp.360–365.
Lindahl, P., Robèrt, K.H., Ny, He., Broman, G. 2014. Strategic sustainability considerations in materials management. J Clean Prod. 64, 98–103.
Liu, M. 2010. Self–consolidating concrete with different levels of pulverized fuel ash. Constr Build Mater. 24(7), 1245–1252.
Marie, I., Quiasrawi, H. 2012. Closed–loop recycling of recycled concrete aggregates. J Clean Prod. 37, 243–248.
Marinković, S., Radonjanin, V., Malešev, M., Ignjatović, I. 2010. Comparative environmental assessment of natural and recycled aggregate concrete. Waste Manage. 30(11), pp.2255–2264.
McCarthy, M. J., Dhir, R. K. 1999. Towards maximizing the use of coal fly ash as a binder. Fuel. 78(2), pp.121–132.
Okamura, H., Ouchi, M. 2003. Self–consolidating concrete. J Adv Concr Technol. 1(1), pp.5–15.
Rukzon, S., Chindaprasirt, P. 2010. Strength and carbonation model of rice husk ash cement mortar with different fineness. J Mater Civil Eng. 22(3), pp.253–259.
Safiuddin, M. D., West, J. S., Soudki, K. A. 2011. Flowing ability of the mortars formulated from self–consolidating concretes incorporating rice husk ash. Constr Build Mater. 25(2), pp.973–978.
Safiuddin, M. D., West, J. S., Soudki, K. A. 2012. Properties of freshly mixed self–consolidating concretes incorporating rice husk ash as a supplementary cementing material. Constr Build Mater. 30, pp.833–842.
Sathawanea, S. H, Vairagadeb, V. S., Kenec, K. S. 2013. Combine effect of rice husk ash and coal fly ash on concrete by 30% cement replacement. Procedia Eng. 51, pp.35–44.
Siddique, R., Aggarwal, P., Aggarwal, Y. 2012. Influence of water/powder ratio on strength properties of self–consolidating concrete containing coal fly ash and bottom ash. Constr Build Mater. 29, pp.73–81.
Sua–iam, G., Makul, N. 2013. Utilization of limestone powder to improve the properties of self–consolidating concrete incorporating high volumes of untreated rice husk ash as fine aggregate. Constr Build Mater. 38, pp.455–464.
Sua–iam, G., Makul, N.Use of increasing amounts of bagasse ash waste to produce self–consolidating concrete by adding limestone powder waste. J Clean Prod. 57, pp.308–319.
Tangtermsirikul, S. 2005. Development of coal fly ash usage in Thailand. The International Workshop on Project Management (IWPM) 2005, Kochi, Japan.
Turgut, P. 2012. Manufacturing of building bricks without Portland cement. J Clean Prod. 37, pp.361–367.
Van V. T. A., Rößler, C., Bui, D. D., Ludwig HM. 2013. Mesoporous structure and pozzolanic reactivity of rice husk ash in cementitious system. Constr Build Mater. 43, pp.208–216.
Wang, S., Miller, A., Llamazos E, Fonseca F, Baxter L. 2008. Biomass coal fly ash in concrete: Mixture proportioning and mechanical properties. Fuel. 87, 365–71.
Yan, L., Yupeng, G., Wei, G., Zhuo, W., Yuejia, M., Zichen, W. 2012. Simultaneous preparation of silica and activated carbon from rice husk ash. J Clean Prod. 32, pp.204–209.
Zerbino, R., Giaccio, G., Isaia, G. C. 2011. Concrete incorporating rice–husk ash without processing. Constr Build Mater. 25(1), pp.371–378.
Zhang, M. H, Lastra, R, Malhotra, V. M. 1996. Rice–husk ash paste and concrete: Some aspects of hydration and the microstructure of the interfacial zone between the aggregate and paste. Cem Conc Res. 26(6), pp.963–977.
Zhao, H., Poon, C. S., Ling, T. C. 2013. Utilizing recycled cathode ray tube funnel glass sand as river sand replacement in the high–density concrete. J Clean Prod. 51, pp.184–190.

Chapter 8

ASTM C150/C150M. Standard specification for Portland cement. American Society for Testing and Material; 2011.
ASTM C1611/C1611M. Standard test method for slump flow of self–consolidating concrete. American Society for Testing and Material; 2011.
ASTM C1621/C1621M. Standard test method for passing ability of self–consolidating concrete by J–Ring. American Society for Testing and Material; 2011.
ASTM C29/C29M. Standard test method for bulk density (“unit weight”) and voids in aggregate. American Society for Testing and Material; 2011.
ASTM C39/C39M. Standard test method for compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens. American Society for Testing and Material; 2011.
ASTM C494/C494M. Standard specification for chemical admixtures for concrete. American Society for Testing and Material; 2011.
ASTM C597/C597M. Standard test method for pulse velocity through concrete. American Society for Testing and Material; 2011.
EFNARC, Specification and guidelines for self–consolidating concrete, Surrey, UK. 2002.
Gesoğlu, M., Güneyisi, E., and Özbay, E. Properties of self–consolidating concrete made with binary, ternary and quaternary cementitious blends of fly ash, blast furnace slag and silica fume. Constr Build Mater. Vol. 23, No. 5, 2009, pp 1847–1854.
Khayat, K.H. Workability, Testing and performance of self–consolidating concrete. ACI Mater J. Vol. 96, No. 3, 1999, pp 346–354.
Liu, M. Self–consolidating concrete with different levels of pulverized fuel ash. Constr Build Mater. Vol. 24, No. 7, 2010, pp 1245–1252.
Makhloufi Z., Kadri, E.H., Bouhicha, M., and Benaissa, A. “Resistance of limestone mortar with quaternary binders to sulfuric acid solution” Constr Build Mater. Vol. 26, No. 1, 2012, pp 497–504.
Okamura, H., and Ouchi, M. Self–consolidating concrete. J Adv Concr Technol. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2003, pp 5–15.
Qijun. Y, K. Sawayama, S. Sugita, M. Shoya and Y. Isojima. The reaction between rice husk ash and Ca(OH)2 solution and the nature of its product. Cem Concr Res. Vol .29, No. 1, 1999, 37–43.
Safiuddin, Md., Wast, J.S., and Soudki, K.A. Flowing ability of the mortars formulated form self–consolidating concrete incorporating rice husk ash. Constr Build Mater. Vol. 25, No. 2, 2011, pp 973–978.
Tarun, R.N., Rakesh, K., Bruce, W.R., and Fethullah, C. Development of high strength, economical self–consolidating concrete. Constr Build Mater. Vol. 30, 2012, pp 463–469.
Uysal, M., and Yilmaz, K. Effect of mineral admixtures on properties of self–consolidating concrete. Cem Concr Compos. Vol. 33, No. 7, 2011, pp 771–776.
Yahia, A., Tanimura, M., and Shimoyama, Y. Rheological properties of highly flowable mortar containing limestone filler effect of powder content and WATER-CEMENT ratio. Cem Concr Res. Vol. 35, No. 3, 2005, pp 532–539.

Keywords: Cement and concrete materials

You have not viewed any product yet.