Advances in Modern Cement and Concrete

Natt Makul
Department of Building Technology, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Phranakhon Rajabhat University, Thailand

Gritsada Sua-Iam
Division of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bangkokthonburi University, Taweewatana Bangkok, Thailand

Series: Construction Materials and Engineering
BISAC: TEC005000

Clear

$195.00

Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

eBook

Digitally watermarked, DRM-free.
Immediate eBook download after purchase.

Product price
Additional options total:
Order total:

Quantity:

Details

Cement and concrete are among the materials made by man that tell us a great deal about how far civilization has come. Developed over time for various uses, modern concrete and cement come in multiple forms, including self-compacting/consolidating concrete, green concrete, and nano cement.

This book consists of five chapters. Each chapter comprises an introduction, a discussion of the concept of the design and the concrete’s development, and the properties and testing of the concrete in fresh and hardened stages. This book is for readers who want to become well-versed in the most important and current research in the field of modern cement and concrete. The book will be useful for students, researchers, concrete scientists and technologists, and practicing engineers. Each chapter focuses on a specific modern concrete technology, and offers a summary and critique of recent research findings and patents published in the most well-known, reputable publications.

The author would like to express his gratitude to the many people who saw him through this book – people who provided support, read sections of the manuscript, offered comments, allowed him to quote their remarks, and assisted in the editing, proofreading, and design. Also, the author would like to thank Dr. Loyola D’Silva and Dr. Ashok Arumairaj for helping him in the selection and editing processes. Additionally, the author would like to thank his publisher, who continuously encouraged him. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Chapter 1. Self-Compacting Concrete

Chapter 2. Green Concrete

Chapter 3. High Performance Microwave Energy in Cement and Concrete

Chapter 4. Testing Cement and Concrete

Chapter 5. Nano Cement and Concrete

Bibliography

Author's Contact Information

Index

Chapter 1

Ahmaruzzaman M. A review on the utilization of fly ash. Prog Energy Combust Sci 2010; 36:327-63.
Akram T, Memon SA, Obaid H. Production of low cost self-consolidating concrete using bagasse ash. Constr Build Mater 2009; 23:703-711.
American Concrete Institute. ACI 237R-07 Self-consolidating concrete. ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 1, Farmington Hills, Michigan; 2007.
American Concrete Institute. ACI 318M-08 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary. Michigan; 2008.
American Concrete Institute. ACI Committee 211.1 Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete, Farmington Hills, MI; 1991.
American Society for Testing and Material. ASTM C 143 Standard Test method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete. Annual Book of ASTM Standards 4.02, Philadelphia, PA; 2011.
American Society for Testing and Material. ASTM C 1611 Standard test method for slump flow of self-consolidating concrete. Annual Book of ASTM Standards 4.02, Philadelphia, PA; 2011.
American Society for Testing and Material. ASTM C 311 Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolans for Use in Portland-Cement Concrete. Annual Book of ASTM Standards 4.02, Philadelphia, PA; 2011.
American Society for Testing and Material. ASTM C 618 Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use as a mineral admixture in concrete. Annual Book of ASTM Standards 4.02, Philadelphia, PA; 2011.
Amin N. Use of Bagasse Ash in Concrete and Its Impact on the Strength and Chloride Resistivity. J Mater Civ Eng 2011; 23:717-20.
Andrade LB, Rocha JC, Cheriaf M. Evaluation of concrete incorporating bottom ash as a natural aggregates replacement. Waste Manag 2007; 27:1190-99.
Andrade LB, Rocha JC, Cheriaf M. Influence of coal bottom ash as fine aggregate on fresh properties of concrete. Constr Build Mater 2009; 23:609-14.
Bai Y, Darcy F, Basheer PAM. Strength and drying shrinkage properties of concrete containing furnace bottom ash as fine aggregate. Constr Build Mater 2005; 19:691-97.
Banfill PFG, Teixeira MAOM, Craik RJM. Rheology and vibration of fresh concrete: Predicting the radius of action of poker vibrators from wave propagation. Cem Concr Res 2011; 41:932–41.
Bartos P. Fresh concrete properties and tests. Elsevier science publishers; 1991.
Beaupré D, Lacombe P, Khayat KH. Laboratory investigation of rheological properties and scaling resistance of air entrained self-consolidating concrete. Mater Struct 1999; 32:235-40.
Belaidi ASE, Azzouz L, Kadri E, Kenai S. Effect of natural pozzolana and marble powder on the properties of Self-consolidating concrete. Constr Build Mater 2012; 31:251-57.
Bjömström J, Chandra S. 2003, Effect of superplasticizers on the rheological properties of cements. Mater Struct 2003; 36:685-691.
Bouzoubaâ N, Lachemi M. Self-consolidating concrete incorporating high volumes of class F fly ash: Preliminary results. Cem Concr Res 2001; 31:413-20.
Bronzeoak Ltd. Report of the rice husk ash market study, UK; 2003.
Bui VK, Montgomery D, Hinczak I, Turner K. Rapid testing method for segregation resistance of Self-consolidating concrete. Cem Concr Res 2002; 32:1489-96.
Chandra S, Björnström J. Influence of cement and superplasticizers type and dosage on the fluidity of cement mortars—Part I. Cem Concr Res 2002; 32:1605-1611.
Chao-Lung H, Anh-Tuan BL, Chun-Tsun C. Effect of rice husk ash on the strength and durability characteristics of concrete. Constr Build Mater 2011; 25:3768-71.
Chusilp N, Jaturapitakkul C, Kiattikomol K. Effects of LOI of ground bagasse ash on the compressive strength and sulfate resistance of mortars. Constr Build Mater 2009a; 23:3523-31.
Chusilp N, Jaturapitakkul C, Kiattikomol K. Utilization of bagasse ash as a pozzolanic material in concrete. Constr Build Mater 2009b; 23:3352-58.
Cordeiro GC, Filho RDT, Fairbairn EMR, Luis MMT, Oliveira CH. Influence of mechanical grind on the pozzolanic activity of residual sugarcane bagasse ash. In: International RILEM Conference on Use of Recycled Mater in Building and Structure; 2004.
Cordeiro GC, Filho RDT, Fairbairn EMR. Effect of calcination temperature on the pozzolanic activity of sugar cane bagasse ash. Constr Build Mater 2009; 23:3301-03.
Cordeiro GC, Filho RDT, Fairbairn EMR. Use of ultrafine rice husk ash with high-carbon content as pozzolan in high performance concrete. Mater Struct 2009; 42:983-91.
Cordeiro GC, Filho RDT, Tavares LM, Fairbairn EMR. Pozzolanic activity and filler effect of sugar cane bagasse ash in Portland cement and lime mortars. Cem Concr Compos 2008; 30:410-18.
Cordeiro GC, Filho RDT, Tavares LM, Fairbairn EMR. Ultrafine grinding of sugar cane bagasse ash for application as pozzolanic admixture in concrete. Cem Concr Res 2009; 39:110-115.
Della VP, Kühn I, Hotza D. Rice husk ash as an alternate source for active silica production. Mater Lett 2002; 57:818-821.
Dinakar P, Babu KG, Santhanam M. Durability properties of high volume fly ash self-consolidating concretes. Cem Concr Compos 2008; 30:880-86.
Domone PL. Self-consolidating concrete: An analysis of 11 years of case studies. Cem Concr Compos 2006; 28:197-208.
European Federation of National Associations Representing producers and applicators of specialist building products for Concrete (EFNARC). Specification and Guidelines for Self-consolidating concrete. Farnham, Surrey; 2001.
European Federation of National Associations Representing producers and applicators of specialist building products for Concrete (EFNARC). The European Guidelines for Self-consolidating concrete, Farnham, Surrey; 2005.
Fairbairn EMR, Americano BB, Cordeiro GC, Paula TP, Filho RDT, Silvoso MM. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits. J Environ Manag 2010; 91:1864-71.
Felekoğlu B, Tosun K, Baradan B, Altun A, Uyulgan B. The effect of fly ash and limestone fillers on the viscosity and compressive strength of self-compacting repair mortars. Cem Concr Res 2006; 36:1719-26.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) [internet]. Food and agricultural commodities production [Cited 2014 Aug 12]. Available from: http://faostat.
fao.org/site/339/default.aspx.
Frías M, Villar E, Savastano H. Brazilian sugar cane bagasse ashes from the cogeneration industry as active pozzolans for cement manufacture. Cem Concr Compos 2011; 33:490-96.
Gaimster R, Dixon N. Advance Concrete Technology: Processes. Butterworth – Heinemann, Elsevier; 2003.
Ganesan K, Rajagopal K, Thangavel K. Evaluation of bagasse ash as supplementary cementitious material. Cem Concr Compos 2007; 29:515-524.
Girish S, Ranganath RV, Vengala J. Influence of powder and paste on flow properties of SCC. Constr Build Mater 2010; 24:2481-88.
Hamad MA, Khattab IA. Effect of the combustion process on the structure of rice hull silica. Thermochimi Acta 1981; 48:343-49.
Heidrich C, Feuerborn H-J, Weir A. Coal combustion products: a global perspective. In: World of Coal Ash (WOCA) Conference; 2013.
Hoffmann C, Leemann A. Homogeneity of structures made with Self-consolidating concrete and conventional concrete. In: 3rd International RILEM Symposium on Self-consolidating concrete; 2003.
Japanese Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE). Recommendations for Self-consolidating concrete, Concrete Engineering Series 31, Tokyo; 1999.
Jiménez-Quero VG, León-Martínez FM, Montes-García P, Gaona-Tiburcio C, Chacón-Nava JG. Influence of sugar-cane bagasse ash and fly ash on the rheological behavior of cement pastes and mortars. Constr Build Mater 2013; 40:691–701.
Kannan V, Ganesan K. Chloride and chemical resistance of self-consolidating concrete containing rice husk ash and metakaolin. Constr Build Mater 2014; 51:225–34.
Kasemchaisiri R, Tangtermsirikul S. Properties of Self-consolidating concrete incorporating bottom ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregate. Sci Asia 2008; 34:87-95.
Khan R, Jabbar A, Ahmad I, Khan W, Khan AN, Mirza J. Reduction in environmental problems using rice-husk ash in concrete. Constr Build Mater 2012; 30:360-65.
Khatib JM. Performance of Self-consolidating concrete containing fly ash. Constr Build Mater 2008; 22:1963-71.
Khayat KH. Workability, Testing, and Performance of Self-consolidating Concrete. ACI Mater J 1999:96:346-54.
Kim HK, Lee HK. Use of power plant bottom ash as fine and coarse aggregates in high-strength concrete. Constr Build Mater 2011; 25:1115-21.
Kismi M, Saint-Arroman JC, Mounanga P. Minimizing water dosage of superplasticized mortars and concretes for a given consistency. Constr Build Mater 2012; 28:747-58.
Koehler EP, Fowler DW. ICAR Project 108: Aggregates in Self-consolidating Concrete, International Center for Aggregates Research (ICAR). The University of Texas at Austin, USA; 2007.
Kosmatka SH, Kerkhoff B, Panarese WC. Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures. 14th edition, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois; 2003.
Libre NA, Khoshnazar R, Shekarchi M. Relationship between fluidity and stability of self-consolidating mortar incorporating chemical and mineral admixtures. Constr Build Mater 2010; 24:1262-71.
Liu M. Self-consolidating concrete with different levels of pulverized fuel ash. Constr Build Mater 2010; 24:1245-51.
Loh YR, Sujan D, Rahmana ME, Das CA. Sugarcane bagasse: The future composite material: A literature review. Resour Conserv Recycl 2013; 75:14-21.
Makul N, Agrawal DK. Microwave (1.45 GHz)-assisted rapid sintering of SiO2-rich rice husk ash. Mater Lett 2010; 64:367-70.
Martirena Hernández JF, Middendorf B, Gehrke M, Budelmann H. Use of wastes of the sugar industry as pozzolana in lime-pozzolana binders: study of the reaction. Cem Concr Res 1998; 28:1525-1536.
Mehta PK, Siliceous ashes and hydraulic cements prepared there from. United States Patent No. 4105459; 1978.
Mehta PK. Advanced cements in concrete technology. Concr Int 1999: 21:69-76.
Memon SA, Shaikh MA, Akbar H. Utilization of Rice Husk Ash as viscosity modifying agent in Self Compacting Concrete. Constr Build Mater 2011; 25:1044-48.
Montakarntiwong K, Chusilp N, Tangchirapat W, Jaturapitakkul C. Strength and heat evolution of concretes containing bagasse ash from thermal power plants in sugar industry. Mater Des 2013; 49:414-20.
Muthadhi A, Kothandaraman S. Optimum production conditions for reactive rice husk ash. Mater Struct 2010; 43:1303-15.
Naik TR, Kumar R, Ramme BW, Canpolat F. Development of high-strength, economical self-consolidating concrete. Constr Build Mater 2012; 30: 463-469.
Nair DG, Jagadish KS, Fraaij A. Reactive pozzolanas from rice husk ash: An alternative to cement for rural housing. Cem Concr Res 2006; 36: 1062-71.
Okamura H, Ouchi M. Application of Self-consolidating concrete in Japan. In: 3rd International RILEM Symposium on Self-consolidating concrete; 2003.
Okamura H, Ouchi M. Self-consolidating concrete. Development, present use and future. In: 1st International RILEM Symposium on Self-consolidating concrete; 1999.
Okamura H, Ouchi M. Self-consolidating concrete. J Adv Concr Technol 2003:1:5-15.
Ouchi M, Nakamura SA, Osterberg T, Hallberg SE, Lwin M. Applications of Self-consolidating concrete in Japan, Europe and The united states. In: 5th International Symposium High Performance Computing-ISHPC; 2003.
Ouchi M. Self-compactability of fresh concrete. In: 1st International RILEM Symposium on Design, Performance and Use of Self-consolidating Concrete; 2005.
Pathak N, Siddique R. Properties of self-compacting-concrete containing fly ash subjected to elevated temperatures. Constr Build Mater 2012; 30:274-80.
Pedersen KH, Jensen AD, Skjøth-Rasmussen MS, Dam-Johansen K. A review of the interference of carbon containing fly ash with air entrainment in concrete. Prog Energy Combust Sci 2008; 34:135-54.
Rahman ME, Muntohar AS, Pakrashi V, Nagaratnam BH, Sujan D. Self-consolidating concrete from uncontrolled burning of rice husk and blended fine aggregate. Mater Des 2014; 55:410-15.
Ravindrarajah RS, Siladyi D, Adamopoulos B. Development of high-strength Self-consolidating concrete with reduced segregation potential. In: 3rd International RILEM Symposium on Self-consolidating concrete; 2003.
Roussel N, Nguyen TLH, Yazoghli O, Coussot P. Passing ability of fresh concrete: A probabilistic approach. Cem Concr Res 2009; 39:227-31.
Rukzon S, Chindaprasirt P, Mahachai R. Effect of grinding on chemical and physical properties of rice husk ash. Int J Miner Metall Mater 2009; 16:242-247.
Rukzon S, Chindaprasirt P. Utilization of bagasse ash in high-strength concrete. Mater Des 2012; 34:45-50.
Safawi MI, Iwaki I, Miura T. The segregation tendency in the vibration of high fluidity concrete. Cem Concr Res 2004; 34:219-26.
Safiuddin Md, Fitz Gerald GR, West JS, Soudki KA. Air-void stability in fresh self-consolidating concretes incorporating rice husk ash. Advances in Engineering Structures, Mechanics & Construction, Springer: 2006.
Safiuddin Md, West JS, Soudki KA. Flowing ability of the mortars formulated from Self-consolidating concretes incorporating rice husk ash. Constr Build Mater 2011; 25:973-78.
Safiuddin Md, West JS, Soudki KA. Hardened properties of self-consolidating high performance concrete including rice husk ash. Cem Concr Compos 2010; 32:708-17.
Safiuddin Md, West JS, Soudki KA. Properties of freshly mixed self-consolidating concretes incorporating rice husk ash as a supplementary cementing material. Constr Build Mater 2012; 30:833-41.
Şahmaran M, Yaman ÍÖ, Tokyay M. Transport and mechanical properties of self-consolidating concrete with high volume fly ash. Cem Concr Compos 2009; 31:99-106.
Şahmaran M, Yaman ÍÖ. Hybrid fiber reinforced Self-consolidating concrete with a high-volume coarse fly ash. Constr Build Mater 2007; 21:150-156.
Sales A, Lima SA. Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement. Waste Manag 2010; 30:1114-21.
Sensale GR, Ribeiro AB, Gonçalves A. Effects of RHA on autogenous shrinkage of Portland cement pastes. Cem Concr Compos 2008; 30:892-97.
Siddique R, Aggarwal P, Aggarwal Y. Influence of water/powder ratio on strength properties of Self-consolidating concrete containing coal fly ash and bottom ash. Constr Build Mater 2012; 29:73-81.
Siddique R, Khan MI. Supplementary Cementing Materials. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg; 2011.
Siddique R. Compressive strength, water absorption, sorptivity, abrasion resistance and permeability of self-consolidating concrete containing coal bottom ash. Constr Build Mater 2013; 47:1444-50.
Siddique R. Properties of Self-consolidating concrete containing class F fly ash. Mater Des 2011; 32:1501-1507.
Siddique R. Utilization of coal combustion by-products in sustainable construction materials. Resour Conserv Recycl 2010; 54:1060-66.
Singh M, Siddique R. Effect of coal bottom ash as partial replacement of sand on properties of concrete. Resources, Resour Conserv Recycl 2013; 72:20-31.
Singh M, Siddique R. Strength properties and micro-structural properties of concrete containing coal bottom ash as partial replacement of fine aggregate. Constr Build Mater 2014; 50:246-56.
Singh NB, Singh VD, Rai S. Hydration of bagasse ash-blended Portland cement. Cem Concr Res 2000; 30:1485-88.
Skarendahl A. Definitions. Report 23: Self-consolidating concrete: State-of-the-Art report of RILEM Technical Committee 174-SCC, RILEM Publications; 2000.
Skarendahl A. The present - The future. In: 3rd International RILEM Symposium on Self-consolidating concrete; 2003.
Sonebi M, Bartos PJM. Filling ability and plastic settlement of Self-consolidating concrete. Mater Struct 2002; 35:462-69.
Sua-iam G, Makul N. Use of increasing amounts of bagasse ash waste to produce self-consolidating concrete by adding limestone powder waste. J Clean Prod 2013; 57:308-19.
Sua-iam G, Makul N. Utilization of high volumes of unprocessed lignite-coal fly ash and rice husk ash in self-consolidating concrete. J Clean Prod 2014; 78:184-94.
Sua-iam G, Makul N. Utilization of limestone powder to improve the properties of self-consolidating concrete incorporating high volumes of untreated rice husk ash as fine aggregate. Constr Build Mater 2013; 38:455-64.
Suprenant BA. Concrete vibration: The why and how of consolidating concrete. Concr Constr 1988:563-68.
Tangtermsirikul S, Khayat KH. Fresh concrete properties. Report 23: Self-consolidating concrete: State-of-the-Art report of RILEM Technical Committee 174-SCC, RILEM Publications; 2000.
Tregger N, Gregori A, Ferrara L, Shah S. Correlating dynamic segregation of self-consolidating concrete to the slump-flow test. Constr Build Mater 2012; 28:499-505.
Tuan NV, Ye G, Breugel KV, Fraaij ALA, Dai BD. The study of using rice husk ash to produce ultra-high performance concrete. Constr Build Mater 2011; 25:2030-35.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) [internet]. Bottom ash [Updated 2014 Feb 7: cited 2014 Aug 12]. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/ imr/ccps/bottomash.htm.
Uysal M, Yilmaz K, Ipek M. Properties and behavior of Self-consolidating concrete produced with GBFS and FA additives subjected to high temperatures. Constr Build Mater 2012; 28:321-26.
Van V-T-A, Rößler C, Bui D-D, Ludwig H-M. Mesoporous structure and pozzolanic reactivity of rice husk ash in cementitious system. Constr Build Mater 20113; 43:208-16
Wesche K. Fly ash in concrete: Properties and performance. Chapman & Hall, London; 1991.
Xie Y, Liu B, Yin J, Zhou S. Optimum mix parameters of high-strength Self-consolidating concrete with ultrapulverized fly ash. Cem Concr Res 2002; 32:477-80.
Yahia A, Tanimura M, Shimoyama Y. Rheological properties of highly flowable mortar containing limestone filler-effect of powder content and W/C ratio. Cem Concr Res 2005; 35:532-39.
Zain MFM, Islam MN, Mahmud F, Jamil M. Production of rice husk ash for use in concrete as a supplementary cementitious material. Constr Build Mater 2011; 25:798-805.
Zerbino R, Barragán B, Garcia T, Agulló L, Gettu R. Workability tests and rheological parameters in self-consolidating concrete. Mater Struct 2009; 42:947-60.
Zerbino R, Giaccio G, Isaia GC. Concrete incorporating rice-husk ash without processing. Constr Build Mater 2011; 25:371-78.
Zhu W, Gibbs JC, Bartos PJM. Uniformity of in situ properties of Self-consolidating concrete in full-scale structural elements. Cem Concr Compos 2001; 23:57-64.

Chapter 2

Aïtcin, P-C., 2000. Cements of yesterday and today: Concrete of tomorrow. Cem. Concr.
Res.
30, 1349–1359.
Aldahdooh, M.A.A., Muhamad Bunnori, N., Megat Johari, M.A., 2013. Development of green ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete containing ultrafine palm oil fuel ash. Constr. Build. Mater. 48, 379–389.
Badur, S., Chaudhary, R., 2008. Utilization of hazardous wastes and by-products as a green concrete material through S/S process: A review. Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 17, 42–61.
Bhimani, D.R., Pitroda, J., Bhavsar, J.J., 2013. Innovative ideas for manufacturing of the green concrete by utilizing the used foundry sand and pozzocrete. Int. J. Emerg. Sci. Eng. 1(6), 28–32.
Blanco-Carrasco, M., Hornung, F., Ortner, N., 2010. Qatar: Green concrete technologies towards a sustainable concrete industry in Qatar. http://www.mcqa.com/databases/ internet/_public/files.nsf/SearchView/61609E5C572EDF8DC12578870037C6F3/$File/green-concrete.pdf. (accessed: 12.12.15).
Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI), 2009d. Recycling Concrete: Executive summary. World Business Council for Sustainable Development, http://www.wbcsdcement.org/
pdf/CSI-RecyclingConcrete-Summary.pdf. (accessed: 12.12.15).
Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI). 2009a. Cement industry energy and CO2 performance: Getting the numbers right. World Business Council for Sustainable Development. http://www.wbcsdcement.org/pdf/CSI%20GNR%20Report%20final%2018%206%2009. pdf. (accessed: 12.12.15).
Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI). 2009b. Cement Technology Roadmap 2009 Carbon emissions reductions up to 2050. World Business Council for Sustainable Development. http://www.wbcsdcement.org/pdf/technology/WBCSD-IEA_Cement%20Roadmap.pdf. (accessed: 12.12.15).
Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI). 2009c. Recycling Concrete: Full report. World Business Council for Sustainable Development, http://www.wbcsdcement.org/pdf/CSI-RecyclingConcrete-FullReport.pdf. (accessed: 12.12.15).
Chen, S-H., Wang, H-Y., Jhou, J-W., 2013. Investigating the properties of lightweight concrete containing high contents of recycled green building materials. Constr. Build. Mater. 48, 98–103.
Concrete Joint Sustainability Initiative. 2015. Maintenance and Repair. http://www.
sustainableconcrete.org/?q=node/170. (accessed: 12.12.15).
Crompton, S., 2003. Advanced Concrete Technology: Processes. (edited by Newman, J., and Choo, B.S). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Dewar, J.D. Anderson, R., 1992. Manual of Ready-Mixed Concrete. (2nd ed.). London: Blackie Academic and Professional.
Duxson, P., Provis, J.L., Lukey, G.C., van Deventer, J.S.J., 2007. The role of inorganic polymer technology in the development of “green concrete.” Cem. Concr. Res. 37, 1590–1597.
Edvardsen, C., Tølløse, K., 2001. Environmentally “green” concrete structures. Proceedings FIB-symposium “Concrete and Environment.” Berlin, Germany.
European Ready Mixed Concrete Organization (ERMCO). 2000. Ready mixed concrete: A

natural choice. Surrey: United Kingdom.
European Ready Mixed Concrete Organization (ERMCO). 2014. Ready-mixed concrete industry statistics in the year 2013. Brussels: Belgium.
Fib Bulletin 67: Guidelines for Green Concrete Structures, 1562–3610. International Federation for Structural Concrete (fib), 2012.
Fowler, D.W., 1999. Polymers in concrete: A vision for the 21st century. Cem. Concr. Compos. 21(5–6), 449–452.
Garg, C., Jain, A., 2014. Green concrete: Efficient and eco-friendly construction materials. IMPACT: Int. J. Res. Eng. Technol. 2(2), 259–264.
Glavind, M., Munch-Petersen, C., Damtoft, J.S., Berrig, A., 1999. Green concrete in Denmark. Proceedings of Concrete 9 9- Our Concrete Environment. Sydney, Australia.
Hameed, M.S., Sekar, A.S.S., 2009. Properties of green concrete containing quarry rock dust and marble sludge powder as fine aggregate. ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 4(4), 83–89.
Hendriks, C.A., Worrell, E., de Jager, D., Blok, K., Riemer, P., 2004. Emission reduction of greenhouse gases from the cement industry. IEA Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies Conference. http://www.wbcsdcement.org/pdf/tf1/prghgt42.pdf. (accessed: 12.12.15).
Huang, X., Ranade, R., Zhang, Q., Ni, W., Li, V.C., 2013. Mechanical and thermal properties of green lightweight engineered cementitious composites. Constr. Build. Mater. 48, 954–960.
Imbabi, M.S., Carrigan, C., McKenna, S., 2012. Trends and developments in green cement and concrete technology. Int. J. Sustain. Built Environ. 1, 194–216.
International Concrete Repair Institute (ICRI), 2015. https://c.ymcdn.com/sites/icri.siteym. com/resource/collection/1023A08-21D0-4AE9-8F9A-5C0A111D4AC9/ICRICommittee160-Sustainability_ whitepaper.pdf. (accessed: 12.12.15).
Jin, R., Chen, Q., 2013. An investigation of current status of “green” concrete in the construction industry. 49th ASC Annual International Conference Proceedings. California

: USA.
Kashwani, G., Sajwani, A., Al Ashram, M., Al Yaaqoubi, R., 2014. Evaluation of environmental requirements for sustainable ready-mix concrete production in Abu Dhabi Emirate. J. Environ. Prot. 5, 333–339.
Kim, K., Shin, M., Cha, S., 2013. Combined effects of recycled aggregate and fly ash towards concrete sustainability. Constr. Build. Mater. 48, 499–507.
Koenders, E.A.B., Pepe, M., Martinelli, E., 2014. Compressive strength and hydration processes of concrete with recycled aggregates. Cem. Concr. Res. 56, 203–212.
Lee, M-G., Wang, Y-C., Chiu, C-T., 2007. Preliminary study of reactive powder concrete as a new repair material. Constr. Build. Mater. 21(1), 182–189.
Lemay, L., Lobo, C., 2010. Concrete and climate change: How does concrete stack up against other building materials? Concrete sustainability report (CSR02), National Ready Mixed Concrete Association. Maryland: United States of America.
Lemay, L., Peng, T., 2014. Concrete’s contribution to LEED v4. Concrete sustainability report (CSR11). National Ready Mixed Concrete Association. Maryland: USA.
Lo, T.Y., Cui, H.Z., 2004. Properties of green lightweight aggregate concrete. International Workshop on Sustainable Development and Concrete Technology. Beijing: China.
Long, G., Gao, Y., Xie, Y., 2015. Designing more sustainable and greener self-compacting concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 84, 301–306.
Lu, Y., 2012. Sustainability and innovative construction: Green building with concrete. J. Civil. Environ. Eng. 2:5. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/ 2165-784X.1000e107.
Manjunatha, L.R., Anvekar, S.R., 2015. Green marketing and sustainable development initiatives in the Indian ruban cement and concrete industry. International Conference on Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Sustainable Ruban Society. Bangalore: India.
Marie, I., Quiasrawi, H., 2012. Closed-loop recycling of recycled concrete aggregates. J. Clean. Prod. 37, 243–248.
Mays, G., 2003. Durability of concrete structure: Investigation, repair and protection. E&FN Spon. London: UK.
Megat Johari, M.A., Zeyad, A.M., Bunnori, N.M., Ariffin, K.S., 2012. Engineering and transport properties of high-strength green concrete containing high volume of ultrafine palm oil fuel ash. Constr. Build. Mater. 30, 281–288.
Mehta, P.K., 2002. Greening of the concrete industry for sustainable development. Concr. Int. July, 23–28.
Meyer, C., 2005. Concrete as a green building material. Proceedings of Construction Materials Mindess Symposium, Vancouver: Canada.
Meyer, C., 2009. The greening of the concrete industry. Cem. Conc. Compos. 31, 601–605.
Müllera, H.S., Breinera, R., Moffatta, J.S., Haista, M., 2014. Design and properties of sustainable concrete. Procedia Eng. 95, 290–304.
Naik, T.R., 2002. Greener concrete using recycled materials. Concr. Int. 45–49.
Naik, T.R., 2008. Sustainability of concrete construction. Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction. 13(2), 98–103.
National Ready Mixed Concrete Association (NRMCA). 2009a. Sustainability initiatives. http://www.nrmca.org/sustainability/NRMCA%20Sustainability%20Initiatives%205-8-09%208.5x11.pdf (accessed: 12.12.15).
National Ready Mixed Concrete Association (NRMCA). 2009b. Ready mixed concrete Industry LEED reference guide. (3rd ed.). Maryland: RMC Research & Education Foundation.
National Ready Mixed Concrete Association (NRMCA). 2012. Concrete CO2 fact sheet. http://www.nrmca.org/greenconcrete/concrete%20co2%20fact%20sheet%20june%20 2008.pdf. (accessed: 12.12.15).
Nozahic, V., Amziane, S., Torrent, G., Saïdi, K., De Baynast, H., 2012. Design of green concrete made of plant-derived aggregates and a pumice–lime binder. Cem. Concr. Compos. 34, 231–241.
Obla, K.H., 2009a. What is green concrete? Concrete in Focus. 17–19.
Obla, K.H., 2009b. What is green concrete? Indian Concrete Journal. 26–28.
Portland Cement Association (PCA), 2005. An engineer’s guide to building green with concrete. http://www.cdrecycling.org/assets/concrete-recycling/buildgreen.pdf (accessed: 12.12.15).
Portland Cement Association (PCA), 2015. Technical Brief: Green in practice 102-concrete, cement, and CO2. http:// www.concretethinker.com/ Papers.aspx?DocId=312. (accessed: 12.12.15).
Proske, T., Hainer, S., Rezvani, M., Graubner, C-A., 2013. Eco-friendly concretes with reduced water and cement contents: Mix design principles and laboratory tests. Cem. Concr. Res. 51, 38–46.
Proske, T., Hainer, S., Rezvani, M., Graubner, C-A., 2014. Eco-friendly concretes with reduced water and cement content: Mix design principles and application in practice. Constr. Build. Mater., http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.12.066.
Radonjanin, V., Malešev, M., Marinković, S., Al Malty, A.E.S., 2013. Green recycled aggregate concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 47, 1503–1511.
Rebeiz, K.S., Yang, S., Fowler, D.W., 1994. Polymer mortar composites made with recycled plastics. ACI Materials Journal. 91(3), 313–319.
Sakai, K., Noguchi, T., 2012. The sustainable use of concrete. CRC Press, USA.
Schneider, M., Romer, M., Tschudin, M., Bolio, H., 2011. Sustainable cement production—present and future. Cem. Concr. Res. 41, 642–650.
Sellami, A., Merzoud, M., Amziane, S., 2013. Improvement of mechanical properties of green concrete by treatment of the vegetals fibers. Constr. Build. Mater. 47, 1117–1124.
Sheen, Y-N., Wang, H-Y., Sun, T-H., 2014. Properties of green concrete containing stainless steel oxidizing slag resource materials. Constr. Build. Mater. 50, 22–27.
Stanley, C.C., 2007. Ready mixed concrete in the 21st century. 32nd Conference on Our World in Concrete & Structures. Singapore.
Sturrock, C., 2008. Green cement may set CO2 fate in concrete. San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/green/article/Green-cement-may-set-CO2-fate-in-concrete-3196916.php#photo-2335975. (accessed: 12.12.15).
Suhendro, B., 2014. Toward green concrete for better sustainable environment. Procedia Eng. 95, 305–320.
Tafheem, Z., Khusru, S., Nasrin, S., 2011. Environmental impact of green concrete in practice. Proceedings of the International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Renewable Energy 2011 (ICMERE2011). Chittagong: Bangladesh.
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 2015. Mineral commodity summaries, http://minerals.
usgs.gov/. (accessed: 12.12.15).
Uwasu, M., Hara, K., Yabar, H., 2014. World cement production and environmental implications. Environ. Dev. 10, 36–47.
Valipour, M., Yekkalar, M., Shekarchi, M., Panahi, S., 2014. Environmental assessment of green concrete containing natural zeolite on the global warming index in marine environments. J. Clean. Prod. 65, 418–423.
Wu, J.J. 2014. Ready-mixed concrete green production matrix. Appl. Mech. Mater. 584–586, 1337–1341.
Xue, J., Shinozuka, M., 2013. Rubberized concrete: A green structural material with enhanced energy-dissipation capability. Constr. Build. Mater. 42, 196–204.
Yunsheng, Z., Wei, S., Sifeng, L., Chujie, J., Jianzhong, L., 2008. Preparation of C200 green reactive powder concrete and its static-dynamic behaviors. Cem. Concr. Compos. 30, 831–838.
Zhao, S., Sun, W., 2014. Nano-mechanical behavior of a green ultra-high performance concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 63, 150– 160.

Chapter 3

Abdelghani-Idrissi MA, Experimental investigations of occupied volume effect on the microwave heating and drying kinetics of cement powder in a mono-mode cavity. Appl Therm Eng 2001; 21: 955-65.
Agrawal DK, Latest global developments in microwave materials processing. Mat Res Inno 2011; 14: 3-8.
Al-Qadi IL, Hazim O, Su W, Riad S. Dielectric properties of Portland cement concrete at low radio frequencies. J Mater Civ Eng 1995; 7: 192-8.
Available from: http:/www.cemnet.com/Articles/story/153619/global-cement-2014-outlook.
html. Available from: www.rohde-schwarz.co.in/file/RAC-0607-0019_1_5E.pdf‎.
Ayappa KG, Davis HT, Crapiste G, Davis EAJ. Gordon, J.Microwave heating: An evaluation of power formulations. Chem Engng Sci 1991; 46: 1005-16.
Ayappa KG, Davis HT, Davis EA, Gordon J. Analysis of microwave heating of materials with temperature-dependent properties. AIChE J 1991; 37: 313-22.
Baoyi L, Yuping D, Shunhua L. The electromagnetic characteristics of fly ash and absorbing properties of cement-based composites using fly ash as cement replacement. Constr Build Mater 2012; 27: 184-8.
Bažant ZP, Zi G. Decontamination of radionuclides from concrete by microwave heating. I: Theory. J Eng Mech 2003; 129: 777-84.
Bois KA, Benally A, Zoughi R, Near-field microwave non-invasive determination of NaCl in mortar. IEEE Proceedings: Science, Measurement and Technology, Special Issue on Non-destructive Testing and Evaluation 2001; 148: 178-82.
Bois KA, Benally A, Zoughi R. Microwave near-field reflection property analysis of concrete for material content determination. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas 2000; 49: 49-55.
Büyüköztürk O, Yu T, Ortega J. A methodology for determining complex permittivity of construction materials based on transmission-only coherent, wide-bandwidth free-space measurements. Cem Conc Res 2006; 8: 349-59.
Coverdale RT, Christensen BJ, Mason TO, Jennings HM, Garboczi EJ. Interpretation of impedance spectroscopy of cement paste via computer modeling: Part II. J Mater Sci 1994; 29: 4984-92.
Cronin NJ. Microwave and Optical Waveguides. London; Taylor & Francis; 1995.
Dikhtiar V, Jerby E. Patent No. US 6114676, Method and device for drilling, cutting, nailing and joining solid non-conductive materials using microwave radiation, issued in 2000.
Ding XZ, Zhang X, Ong CK, Tan BT. Study of dielectric and electrical properties of mortar in the early hydration period at microwave frequencies. J Mater Sci 1996; 31: 5339-45.
Dongxu L, Xuequan W. A study on the application of vacuum microwave composite dewatering technnique in concrete engineering. Cem Concr Res 1994; 24: 159-64.
Donnell KM, Hatfield S, Zoughi R, Kurtis KE. Wideband microwave characterization of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) gel in cement-based materials. Mat Lett 2013; 90: 159-61.
Donnell KM, Zoughi R, Kurtis KE. Demonstration of microwave method for detection of alkali–silica reaction (ASR) gel in cement-based materials. Cem Conc Res 2013; 44: 1-7.
Ebadian MA, Li W, A theoretical/experimental investigation of the decontamination of a radioactively contaminated concrete surface using microwave technology: Final Report. DOE Project, DE-AC05-840R2140; 1992.
Energy efficiency Asia, http://www.energyefficiencyasia.org/docs/Industry Sectors Cement draft_May 05.pdf, 20/08/2010; 2010.
Engelbrecht HCL, Birch-Rasmussen S. Patent No. EP2197641B1, Process for curing and drying reinforced concrete, Publication date: Feb 23, 2011.
Engelbrecht HCL, Birch-Rasmussen S. Patent No. WO2009027813A2, Process for curing and drying reinforced concrete, Publication date: Mar 5, 2009.
Fang Y, Chen Y, Silsbee MR, Roy DM, Microwave sintering of fly ash. Mater Lett 1996; 27: 155-59.
Fang Y, Roy DM, Roy R. Microwave clinkering of ordinary and colored Portland cements. Cem Conc Res 1996; 26: 41-7.
Gorur K, Smit MK, Wittmann FH. Microwave study of hydrating cement paste at early age. Cem Concr Res 1982; 12: 447-54.
Haddad RH, Ai-Qadi IL. Characterization of Portland cement concrete using electromagnetic waves over the microwave frequencies. Cem Conc Res 1998; 28: 1379-91.
Hager NE, Domszy RC. Monitoring of cement hydration by broadband time-domain-reflectometry dielectric spectroscopy. J Appl Phys 2004; 96: 5117-28.
Haoxuan L, Agrawal DK, Cheng J, Silsbee MR. Formation and hydration of C3S prepared by microwave and conventional sintering. Cem Conc Res 1996; 29: 1611-17.
Haoxuan L, Agrawal DK, Cheng J, Silsbee MR. Microwave sintering of sulphoaluminate cement with utility wastes. Cem Conc Res 2001; 31: 1257-61.
Hashem M, Al-Mattarneh A, Ghodgaonkar DK, Mahmood W, Majid WA. Determination of compressive strength of concrete using free-space reflection measurements in the frequency range of 8-12.5 GHz. Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference, Taipei, Taiwan; 2001: 679-82.
Hasted JB, Shah MA, Microwave absorption by water in building materials. British J Appl Phys 1964; 15: 825, doi:10.1088/0508-3443/15/7/307.
Henry F, Broncy M, Berteaud AJ. The hydration kinetics studied by means of microwaves. Microwaves 1978; 19: 608-12.
Hewlett Packard Corporation. Dielectric Probe Kit 85070A. Palo Alto. CA: Research and Development Unit. Test and Measurements Laboratories; 1992.
Hills DL, The removal of concrete layers from biological shields by microwave EUR 12185 (2nd Ed.). Nuclear Science and Technology, Commission of the European Communities; 1989.
Hippel ARV. Dielectric Materials and Applications. New York: Technology Press of M.I.T. and John Wiley & Sons; 1954.
Hutchinson RG, Chang JT, Jennings HM, Brodwin ME. Thermal acceleration of Portland cement mortars with microwave energy. Cem Concr Res 1991; 21: 795-9.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields 3 kHz to 300 GHz. IEEE/ANSI, C95.1; 2005.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Technical information statement on: Human Exposure to Microwaves and Other Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag 1995; 14: 336-7.

International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA). International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guidelines: For limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz), Health Physics 1988; 54: 492-522.
Jerby E, Dikhtyar V, Aktushev O, Grosglick U. The microwave drill. Science 2002; 298: 587-9.
Jiang H, Hao Q, Zhou J, Microwave synthesis of dicalcium silicate: Comparison with conventional synthesis. Adv Mat Res 2011; 306-307: 1060-67.
Ke K, Ma B, Wang X. Formation of tricalcium silicate prepared by electric and microwave sintering. Adv Mat Res 2011; 148-149: 1119-23.
Klysz G, Balayssac JP, Ferrières X. Evaluation of dielectric properties of concrete by a numerical FDTD model of a GPR coupled antenna-parametric study. NDT & E Int 2008; 41: 621-31.
Klysz G, Balayssac JP. Determination of volumetric water content of concrete using ground-penetrating radar. Cem Conc Res 2007; 37: 1164-71.
Lagos LE, Li W, Ebadian MA, White TL, Grubb RG, Foster D. Heat transfer within a concrete slab with a finite microwave heating source. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 1995; 38: 887-97.
Lee M. Preliminary study for strength and freeze–thaw durability of microwave- and steam-cured concrete. J Mater Civ Eng 2007; 19: 972-6.
Leon CO. Effect of Mixture Composition and Time on Dielectric Constant of Fresh Concrete. Master’s Thesis. North Carolina State University: 2007.
Leung CKY, Pheeraphan T. Determination of optimal process for microwave curing of concrete. Cem Concr Res 1997; 27: 463-72.
Leung CKY, Pheeraphan T. Microwave curing of Portland cement concrete: Experimental results and feasibility for practical applications. Constr Build Mater 1995; 9: 67-73.
Leung CKY, Pheeraphan T. Very high early strength of microwave cured concrete. Cem Concr Res 1995; 25: 136-46.
Levita G, Marchetti A, Gallone G, Princigallo A, Guerrini GL. Electrical properties of fluidified Portland cement mixes in the early stage of hydration. Cem Conc Res 2000; 30: 923-30.
Li W, Ebadian MA, White TL, Grubb RG, Foster D, Heat and mass transfer in a contaminated porous concrete slab subjected to microwave heating. General Papers in Heat Transfer and Heat Transfer in Hazardous Waste. Processing, ASME HTD (2nd Ed.). 1992; 212: 143-53.
Li W, Ebadian MA, White TL, Grubb RG, Foster D. Heat and mass transfer in a contaminated porous concrete slab with variable dielectric properties. Int J Heat Mass Transfe 1994; 37: 1013-27.
Li W, Ebadian MA, White TL, Grubb RG, Foster D. Heat transfer within a radioactive contaminated concrete slab applying a microwave heating technique. ASME Trans J Heat Transfer 1993; 115: 42-50.
Li W, White TL, Foster D, Ebadian MA. Heat transfer within a steel-reinforced porous concrete slab subjected to microwave heating. J Heat Transfer 1995; 117(3): 582-9.
Ludewig A., Steinbach D. Patent No. WO1997021060A1, Method and device for drying out buildings and or fixed components, Publication date: Jun 12, 1997.
Madlool NA, Saidur R, Hossaina MS, Rahim NA. A critical review on energy use and savings in the cement industries. Renew Sust Energ Rev 2011; 15: 2042-2060.
Mak SL, Banks R, Ritchie R, Shapiro G. Practical industrial microwave technology for rapid curing of precast concrete. Presented to Concrete 2001: 20th Biennial Concrete Conf., Perth, Western Australia, 11-14 September: 2001.
Mak SL, Banks RW, Ritchie DJ, Shapiro G. Advances in microwave curing of concrete. Presented to 4th World Congress on Microwave & Radio Frequency Applications, Sydney, Australia, 22-26 September: 2002.
Mak SL, Ritchie DJ, Shapiro G, Banks RW, Rapid microwave curing of precast concrete slab elements. Presented to 5th CANMET/ACI Int. Conf. on Recent Advances in Concrete Technology, Singapore, 29 July to 1 August: 2001.
Mak SL, Shapiro TGS. Accelerated heating of concrete with microwave curing. Proc. 4th CANMET/ACI/JCI Int. Conf. on Recent Advances in Concrete Technology: Tokushima, Japan, 7-11 June 1989: 531-42.
Mak SL, Taylor AH, Son T, El-Hassan MT. Performance of concrete subjected to microwave accelerated processing. Proc. 4th CANMET/ACI Int. Conf. on Durability of Concrete, Sydney, Australia, 17-22 August 1997: 603-15.
Mak SL. Microwave accelerated processing for precast concrete production. Proc. 4th CANMET/ACI Int. Conf. on Durability of Concrete, Sydney, Australia, 17-22 Aug., supplementary papers 1997: 709-20.
Mak SL. Properties of heat cured concrete. Presented to Concrete Institute of Australia Seminar on Heat, Fire, Weather Effects on Concrete. Brisbane; Queensland; Australia: April, 1999: 156-63.
Makul N, Agrawal DK, Influences of microwave-accelerated curing procedures on microstructure and strength characterization of Type-I Portland cement pastes. J Cer Pro Res 2012; 13: 376-81.
Makul N, Agrawal DK. Comparison of the microstructure and compressive strength of Type 1 Portland cement paste between accelerated curing methods by microwave energy and autoclaving, and a saturated-lime deionized water curing method. J Cer Pro Res 2012; 13: 174-7.
Makul N, Agrawal DK. Influence of microwave-accelerated curing procedures on the microstructure and strength characteristics of Type-I Portland cement pastes. J Cer Pro Res 2011; 12: 376-81.
Makul N, Agrawal DK. Microwave (2.45 GHz)-assisted rapid sintering of SiO2-rich rice husk ash. Mat Lett 2010; 64: 367-70.
Makul N, Agrawal DK. Microwave-accelerated curing of cement-based materials: Compressive strength and maturity modeling. Key Eng Mater 2011; 484: 210-221.
Makul N, Keangin P, Rattanadecho P, Chatveera B, Agrawal DK. Microwave-assisted heating of cementitious materials: Relative dielectric properties, mechanical property, and experimental and numerical heat transfer characteristics. Int Commun Heat Mass Transfer 2010; 37: 1096-105.
Makul N, Rattanadecho P, Agrawal DK. Microwave curing at an operating frequency of 2.45 GHz of Portland cement paste at early-stage using a multi-mode cavity: Experimental and numerical analysis on heat transfer characteristics. Int Commun Heat Mass Transfer 2010; 37: 1487-1495.
Mario P., Sergio L. Patent No. EP0462612A1, Process and device for accelerating the drying of cement mixes, Publication date: Dec 27, 1991.
Metaxas AC, Meredith RJ. Industrial Microwave Heating. United Kingdom: Peter Peregrinus; Herts; 1998.
Metaxas AC. Microwave heating. J Microwave Power Electromagn Energy 1991; 5: 237-47.
Moukwa M, Brodwin M, Christo S, Chang J, Shah SP. The influence of the hydration process upon microwave properties of cements. Cem Concr Res 1991; 21: 863-72.
Nagi M, Whiting D. Determination of water content of fresh concrete using a microwave oven. Cem Conc Aggre 1994; 16: 125-31.
Naik TR, Ramme BW. Determination of the water content of concrete by the microwave method. Cem Concr Res 1987; 17: 927-38.
National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and the Health Protection Agency. Review of the Scientific Evidence for Limiting Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (0-300 GHz). 2004.
Neelakantan TR, Ramasundaram S, Shanmugavel R. Prediction of 28-day compressive strength of concrete from early strength and accelerated curing parameters. Int J Eng Tech 2013; 5: 1197-201.
Neville AM, Properties of Concrete, Fourth Edition, London England: Pitman Books Limited; 1995.
Oriol M, Pera J. Pozzolanic activity of metakaolin under microwave treatment. Cem Concr Res 1995; 25: 265-70.
Paul C, Stephen B. Dielectric properties of Portland cement paste as a function of time since mixing. J Appl Phys 1989; 66: 6007-13.
Pheeraphan T, Accelerated Curing of Concrete with Microwave Energy. Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation; MIT; 1997.
Pheeraphan T, Leung CKY. Freeze–thaw durability of microwave cured air-entrained concrete. Cem Concr Res 1997; 27: 427-35.
Pheeraphana T, Cayliani L, Dumangas Jr MI, Nimityongskul P. Prediction of later-age compressive strength of normal concrete based on the accelerated strength of concrete cured with microwave energy. Cem Conc Res 2002; 32: 521-7.
Ping G, Beudoin JJ. Dielectric behaviour of hardened cement paste systems. J Mater Sci Lett 1996; 15: 182-4.
Prasad A, Prasad K. Effective permittivity of random composite media: A comparative study. Physica B 2007; 396: 132-7.
Quéméneur L, Choisnet J, Raveau B, Thiebaut JM, Roussy G. Microwave clinkering with a grooved resonant applicator. J Am Ceram Soc 1983; 66: 855-9.
Quéméneur L, Choisnet J, Raveau B. Is it possible to use the microwave for clinkering the cement raw materials?. Mater Chem Phys 1983; 8: 293-303.
Ramezanianpour AA, Khazali MH, Vosoughi P. Effect of steam curing cycles on strength and durability of SCC: A case study in precast concrete. Constr Build Mater 2013; 49: 807-13.
Rattanadecho P, Aoki K, Akahori M. A numerical and experimental investigation of the modeling of microwave drying using a rectangular waveguide. Drying Technol An Int J 2001; 19: 2209-34.
Rattanadecho P, Suwannapum N, Chatveera B, Atong D, Makul N. Development of compressive strength of cement paste under accelerated curing by using a continuous microwave thermal processor. Mater Sci Eng A 2008; 472: 299-307.
Rattanadecho P, Suwannapum N, Cha-um W. Interactions between electromagnetic and thermal fields in microwave heating of hardened type-cement paste using a rectangular waveguide (influence of frequency and sample size). ASME J Heat Transfer 2009; 131: 1-12.
Reboul JP. The hydraulic reaction of tricalcium silicate observed by microwave dielectric measurements. Rev Phys Appl (Paris); 1978; 13: 383-6.
Rhim HC, Büyüköztürk O. Electromagnetic properties of concrete at microwave frequency range. ACI Mater J 1998; 95-M25: 262-71.
Sohn D, Johnson DL. Microwave curing effects on the 28-day strength of cementitious materials. Cem Concr Res 1999; 29: 241-7.
Somaratna J, Ravikumar D, Neithalath N. Response of alkali activated fly ash mortars to microwave curing. Cem Concr Res 2010; 40: 1688-96.
Soustos MN, Bungey JH, Millard SG, Shaw MR, Patterson A. Dielectric properties of concrete and their influence on radar testing. NDT&E Int 2001; 34: 419-25.
Suwannapum N, Rattanadecho P. Analysis of heat-mass transport and pressure buildup induced inside unsaturated porous media subjected to microwave energy using a single (TE10) mode cavity. Drying Technol Int J 2011; 29: 1010-24.
Tereshchenko OV, Buesink FJK, Leferink FBJ. An overview of the techniques for measuring the dielectric properties of materials. 978-1-4244-6051-9/11/ IEEE; 2011.
Venkatesh MS, Raghevan GSV. An overview of dielectric properties measuring techniques. Can Biosyst Eng 2005; 47: 15-29.
Verbeck GJ, Helmuth RA. Structures and physical properties of cement paste. 5th Int. Congress Cement Chemistry: Tokyo; Japan; 1969: 1-44.
Vongpradubchai S, Rattanadecho P. The microwave processing of wood using a continuous microwave belt drier. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 2009; 48: 997-1003.
Watson A. Building research station Report A 93. England (DSIR): Garston; 1961.
Watson A. Curing of Concrete. E.C. Okress (Ed.). Microwave Power Engineering. New York: Academic Press; 1968.
Watson A. The non-destructive measurement of water content by microwave absorption. C.I.B. No. 3; 1960: 15-6.
Wen S, Chung DDL. Effect of admixtures on the dielectric constant of cement paste. Cem Conc Res 2001; 31: 673-7.
White TL, Grubb RG, Pugh LP, Foster D Jr, Box WD. Removal of contaminated concrete surfaces by microwave heating: Phase I results presented at the 18th American Nuclear Society Symposium on Waste Management Waste Management 92, Tucson, Arizona; 1992.
Wittmann FH, Schlude F. Microwave absorption of hardened cement paste. Cem Concr Res 1975; 5: 63-71.
Xuequan W, Jianbgo D, Mingshu T, Microwave curing technique in concrete manufacture. Cem Conc Res 1987; 17: 205-10.
Yasunaka, H., Shibamoto, M., Sukagawa, T. 1987. Microwave decontaminator for concrete surface decontamination in JPDR. Proceedings of the International Decommissioning Symposium. United States of America. 4-109-116.
Youssef H, Smith A, Bonnet JP, Abelard P, Blanchart P. Electrical characterization of aluminous cement at the early age in the 10 Hz-1 GHz frequency range. Cem Conc Res 2000; 30: 1057-62.
Zhang J, Scherer GW. Comparison of methods for arresting hydration of cement. Cem Conc Res 2011; 41: 1024-36.
Zhang X, Ding XZ, Lim TH, Ong CK, Tan BTG, Yang J. Microwave study of hydration of slag cement blends in early period. Cem Conc Res 1995; 25: 1086-94.
Zi G, Bažant ZP. Decontamination of radionuclides from concrete by microwave heating. II: Computations. J Eng Mech: 2003; 129: 785-92.
Zoughi R, Gray SD, Nowak PS. Microwave nondestructive estimation of cement paste compressive strength. ACI Mat J 1995; 92: 64-70.
Zoughi R, Microwave Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation. Chapter 2, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2000.
Zoughi R, Nowak PS, Bois KJ, Benally AD, Mirshahi R, Campbell H, Near-field microwave inspection of cement based materials: Microwave sensor for nondestructive and non-contact estimation of concrete compressive strength, Final Report. NSF Contract no. CMS-9523264 and EPRI Contact no. WO 8031-09; 1998.

Chapter 4

Al-Mufti, R.L., Fried, A.N., 2012. The early age non-destructive testing of concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate. Constr. Build. Mater. 37, 379–386.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 2009. Annual Book of ASTM Standards Vol 04.01 Cement; Lime; Gypsum. Philadelphia, United States of America.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 2011. Annual Book of ASTM Standards Vol 04.02 Concrete and Aggregate. Philadelphia, United States of America.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 2015. The History of ASTM International. http://www.astm.org/ABOUT/history_book. html. (accessed 8.10.15.).
Azenha, M., Ramos, L.F., Aguilar, R., Granja, J.L., 2012. Continuous monitoring of concrete E-modulus since casting based on modal identification: A case study for in situ application. Cem. Concr. Compos. 34, 881–890.
Bartlett, F.M., Macgregor, J.G., 1994. Effect of core diameter on concrete core strengths. ACI Materials Journal. 91 (5), 460-470.
Başyiğit, C., Çomak, B., Kılınçarslan, S., Üncü, I.S., 2012. Assessment of concrete compressive strength by image processing technique. Constr. Build. Mater. 37, 526–532.
Behnia, A., Chai, H.K., Shiotani, T., 2014. Advanced structural health monitoring of concrete structures with the aid of acoustic emission. Constr. Build. Mater. 65, 282–302.
Bohdana, S., Tomasz, K., 2013. Determination of the influence of cylindrical samples dimensions on the evaluation of concrete and wall mortar strength using ultrasound method. Procedia Eng. 57, 1078–1085.
Breysse, D., 2012. Nondestructive evaluation of concrete strength: An historical review and a new perspective by combining NDT methods. Constr. Build. Mater. 33, 139–163.
Bungey, J.H., 2004. Sub-surface radar testing of concrete: A review. Constr. Build. Mater. 18, 1–8.
Bungey, J.H., Grantham, M.G., Millard, S., 2006. Testing of concrete in structures: Fourth Edition. Taylor and Francis. United States of America.
Chatterjee, A., Chatterjee, A., 2012. Use of the Fréchet distribution for UPV measurements in concrete. NDT&E Int. 52, 122–128.
Chekroun, M., Marrec, L.L., Abraham, O., Durand, O., Villain, G., 2009. Analysis of coherent surface wave dispersion and attenuation for non-destructive testing of concrete. Ultrasonics. 49, 743–751.
Cho, Y.S., 2003. Non-destructive testing of high strength concrete using spectral analysis of surface waves. NDT&E International. 36, 229–235.
Chung, H.E., Law, K.S., 1983. Diagnosing in situ concrete by ultrasonic pulse technique. ACI Concr. Int. 5 (10), 42–49.
Clark, M.R., McCann, D.M., Forde, M.C., 2003. Application of infrared thermography to the non-destructive testing of concrete and masonry bridges. NDT&E Int. 36, 265–275.
Constantinides, G., Ulm F.-J., Vliet, K.V., 2003. On the use of nanoindentation for cementitious materials. Mat. Struc. 36, 191–196.
El Batanouny, M.K., Ziehl, P.H., Larosche, A., Mangual, J., Matta, F., Nanni, A., 2014. Acoustic emission monitoring for assessment of prestressed concrete beams. Constr. Build. Mater. 58, 46–53.
Erdem, S., 2014. X-ray computed tomography and fractal analysis for the evaluation of segregation resistance, strength response and accelerated corrosion behaviour of self-compacting lightweight concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 61, 10–17.
Giannini, R., Sguerri, L., Paolacci, F., Alessandri, S., 2014. Assessment of concrete strength combining direct and NDT measures via Bayesian inference. Eng. Struc. 64, 68–77.
Goszczyńska, B., 2014. Analysis of the process of crack initiation and evolution in concrete with acoustic emission testing. Arch. Civ. Mech. Eng. 14, 134–143.
Goueygou, M., Abraham, O., Lataste, J.-F., 2008. A comparative study of two non-destructive testing methods to assess near-surface mechanical damage in concrete structures. NDT&E International. 41, 448–456.
Haneef, T.K., Kumari, K., Mukhopadhyay, C.K., Venkatachalapathy, Rao, B.P., Jayakumar, T., 2013. Influence of fly ash and curing on cracking behavior of concrete by acoustic emission technique. Constr. Build. Mater. 44, 342–350.
Hasan, Md.I., Yazdani, N., 2014. Ground penetrating radar utilization in exploring inadequate concrete covers in a new bridge deck: Case studies in construction materials. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cscm.2014.04.003.
Hassan, A.M.T., Jones, S.W., 2012. Non-destructive testing of ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFRC): A feasibility study for using ultrasonic and resonant frequency testing techniques. Constr. Build. Mater. 35, 361–367.
Huang, Y., Yang, Z., Ren W., Liu, G., Zhang, C., 2015. 3D meso-scale fracture modelling and validation of concrete based on in situ X-ray computed tomography images using damage plasticity model. Int. J. Solids Struct. 67–68, 340–352.
Hughes, P., Fairhurst, D., Sherrington, I., Renevier, N., Morton, L.H.G., Robery, P.C., Cunningham, L., 2013. Microscopic study into biodeterioration of marine concrete. Int. Biodeter. Biodegr. 79, 14–19.
Khan, M.I., 2012. Evaluation of non-destructive testing of high strength concrete incorporating supplementary cementitious composites. Resour. Conserv. Recy. 61, 125–129.
Kheder, G.F., 1999. A two stage procedure for assessment of in situ concrete strength using combined non-destructive testing. Mater. Struct. 32, 410–417.
Khoury, S., Aliabdo, A.A-H., Ghazy, A., 2014. Reliability of core test: Critical assessment and proposed new approach. Alexandria Eng. J. 53, 169–184.
Koehler, B., Hentges, G., Mueller, W., 1998. Improvement of ultrasonic testing of concrete by combining signal conditioning methods, scanning laser vibrometer and space averaging techniques. NDT&E Int. 31 (4), 281–287.
Lee, H.K., Lee, K.M., Kim, Y.H., Yim, H., Bae, D.B., 2004. Ultrasonic in situ monitoring of setting process of high-performance concrete. Cem. Conc. Res. 34, 631–640.
Li, Z., 2011. Advanced concrete technology. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Lindgård, J., Sellevold, E.J., Thomas, M.D.A., Pedersen, B., Justnes, H., Rønning, T.F., 2013. Alkali–silica reaction (ASR): Performance testing: Influence of specimen pre-treatment, exposure conditions and prism size on concrete porosity, moisture state and transport properties. Cem. Concr. Res. 53, 145–167.
Mahmoud, A.M., Ammar, H.H., Mukdadi, O.M., Ray, I., Imani, F.S., Chen, A., Davalos, J.F., 2010. Non-destructive ultrasonic evaluation of CFRP: Concrete specimens subjected to accelerated aging conditions. NDT&E Int. 43, 635–641.
Makul, N., Rattanadecho, P., Agrawal, D.K., 2014. Applications of microwave energy in cement and concrete: A review. Renew. Sustainable Energy Rev. 37, 715–733.
Martinovic, S., Dojcinovic, M., Dimitrijevic, M., Devecerski, A., Matovic, B., Volkov, T., Husovic, T., 2010. Implementation of image analysis on thermal shock and cavitation resistance testing of refractory concrete. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 30, 3303–3309.
Mehta, P.K., Monteiro, P.J.M., 2006. Concrete: Microstructure, properties and materials. (3rd ed.). USA: McGraw-Hill.
Mindess, S., Young, J.F., Darwin, D., 2003. Concrete. (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Molero, M., Aparicio, S., Al-Assadi, G., Casati, M.J., Hernández, M.G., Anaya, J.J., 2012. Evaluation of freeze–thaw damage in concrete by ultrasonic imaging. NDT&E Int. 52, 86–94.
Mukharjee, B.B., Barai, S.V., 2014. Influence of incorporation of nano-silica and recycled aggregates on compressive strength and microstructure of concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 71, 570–578.
Nemati, K.M, 1997. Fracture analysis of concrete using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Scanning. 19, 426–430.
Neville, A.M., 1995. Properties of concrete. New York: Longman Group.
Orlowsky, J., 2012. Measuring the layer thicknesses of concrete coatings by mobile NMR: A study on the influence of steel reinforcements. Constr. Build. Mater. 27, 341–349.
Pfister, V., Tundo, A., Luprano, V.A.M., 2014. Evaluation of concrete strength by means of ultrasonic waves: A method for the selection of coring position. Constr. Build. Mater. 61, 278–284.
Pfister, V., Tundo, A., Vincenza A.M. Luprano, V.A.M., 2014. Evaluation of concrete strength by means of ultrasonic waves: A method for the selection of coring position. Constr. Build. Mater. 61, 278–284.
Philippidisa, T.P., Aggelis, D.G., 2003. An acousto-ultrasonic approach for the determination of water-to-cement ratio in concrete. Cem. Conc. Res. 33, 525–538.
Prassianakis, I.N., Prassianakis, N.I., 2004. Ultrasonic testing of non-metallic materials: Concrete and marble. Theor. Appl. Fract. Mec. 42, 191–198.
Pucinotti, R., 2015. Reinforced concrete structure: Non-destructive in situ strength assessment of concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 75, 331–341.
Reinhardt, A.K., Sheyka, M.P., Garner, A.P., Al-Haik, M., Reda Taha, M.M., 2009. Experimental and numerical nano-characterisation of two phases in concrete. Int. J. Mat. Struc. Integrity. 3 (2/3), 134–146.
Resheidat, M.R., Ghanma, M.S., 1997. Accelerated strength and testing of concrete using blended cement. Advn. Cem. Bas. Mater. 5, 49–56.
Roy, D.M., Grutzeck, M.W., Scheetz, B.E., 1993. Concrete microscopy. Strategic Highway Research Program. National Academy of Sciences. Washington.
Sadowski, L., 2013. Non-destructive investigation of corrosion current density in steel reinforced concrete by artificial neural networks. Arch. Civ. Mech. Eng. 13, 104–111.
Saenger, E.H., Kocur, G.K., Jud, R., Torrilhon, M., 2011. Application of time reverse modeling on ultrasonic non-destructive testing of concrete. Appl. Math. Model. 35, 807–816.
Samarin, A., Dhir, R.K., 1984. Determination of in situ concrete strength: Rapidly and confidently by nondestructive testing. ACI Special Publication. 82, 77–94.
Sargolzahi, M., Kodjo, S.A., Rivard, P., Rhazi, J., 2010. Effectiveness of nondestructive testing for the evaluation of alkali–silica reaction in concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 24, 1398–1403.
Sbartaï, Z.M., Laurens, S., Elachachi, S.M., Payan, S., 2012. Concrete properties evaluation by statistical fusion of NDT techniques. Constr. Build. Mater. 37, 943–950.
Schabowicz, K., 2014. Ultrasonic tomography: The latest nondestructive technique for testing concrete members: Description, test methodology, application example. Arch. Civ. Mech. Eng. 14, 295–303.
Seaders, P., Gupta, R., Miller, T.M., 2009. Monotonic and cyclic load testing of partially and fully anchored wood-frame shear walls. Wood Fiber Sci. 41 (2), 145–156.
Sofi, M., Mendis, P.A., Baweja, D., 2012. Estimating early-age in situ strength development of concrete slabs. Constr. Build. Mater. 29, 659–666.
Sudac, D., Nad, K., Obhodas, J., Valkovic, V., 2013. Monitoring of concrete structures by using the 14 MeV tagged neutron beams. Radiat. Meas. 59, 193–200.
Szilágyi, K., Borosnyói, A., Zsigovics, I., 2011. Rebound surface hardness of concrete: Introduction of an empirical constitutive model. Constr. Build. Mater. 25, 2480–2487.
Szilágyi, K., Borosnyói, A., Zsigovics, I., 2014. Extensive statistical analysis of the variability of concrete rebound hardness based on a large database of 60 years experience. Constr. Build. Mater. 53, 333–347.
Tay, D.C.K., Tam, C.T., 1996. In situ investigation of the strength of deteriorated concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 10 (1), 17–26.
Tokyay, M., 1999. Strength prediction of fly ash concretes by accelerated testing. Cem. Concr. Res. 29, 1737–1741.
Uva, G., Porco, F., Fiore, A., Mezzina, M., 2013. Proposal of a methodology for assessing the reliability of in situ concrete tests and improving the estimate of the compressive strength. Constr. Build. Mater. 38, 72–83.
Vlahović, M.M., Savić, M.M., Martinović, S.P., Boljanac, T.Đ., Tatjana D. Volkov-Husović, T.D., 2012. Use of image analysis for durability testing of sulfur concrete and Portland cement concrete. Mater. Design. 34, 346–354.
Wankhade, R.L., Landage, A.B., 2013. Non-destructive testing of concrete structures in Karad region. Procedia Eng. 51, 8–18.
Xiao, J., Li, W., Sun, Z., Lange, D.A., Shah, S.P., 2013. Properties of interfacial transition zones in recycled aggregate concrete tested by nanoindentation. Cem. Concr. Compos. 37, 276–292.
Yamada, K., Karasuda, S., Ogawa, S., Sagawa, Y., Osako, M., Hamada, H., Isneini, M., 2014. CPT as an evaluation method of concrete mixture for ASR expansion. Constr. Build. Mater. 64, 184–191.
Yang, K., Basheer, P.A.M., Bai, Y., Magee, B.J., Long, A.E., 2014. Development of a new in situ test method to measure the air permeability of high performance concretes. NDT&E Int. 64, 30–40.
Yeon, J.H., Choi, S., Won, M.C., 2013. In situ measurement of coefficient of thermal expansion in hardening concrete and its effect on thermal stress development. Constr. Build. Mater. 38, 306–315.

Chapter 5

Abyaneh, M.R.Z., Mousavi, S.M., Mehran, A., Mohammad, S., Hoseini, M., Naderi, S., Irandoost, F.M., 2013. Effects of nano-silica on permeability of concrete and steel bars reinforcement corrosion. Australian. J. Basic. Appl. Sci. 7(2), 464–467.
Aiswarya, S., Prince, A.G., Narendran, A., 2013. Experimental investigation on concrete containing nano-metakaolin. IRACST Eng. Sci. Technol. Int. J. 3(1), 180–187.
Ali, N., Shadi, R., 2011. TiO2 nanoparticles’ effects on properties of concrete using ground granulated blast furnace slag as binder. Sci. China Tech. Sci. 54(11), 3109–3118.
Al-Mishhadani, S.A., Ibrahem, A.M., Naji, Z.H., 2013. The effect of nano metakaolin material on some properties of concrete. Diyala J. Eng. Sci. 6(1), 50–61.
Aly, M., Hashmi, M.S.J., Olabi, A.G., Messeiry, M., Abadir, E.F., Hussain, A.I., 2012. Effect of colloidal nano-silica on the mechanical and physical behavior of waste-glass cement mortar. Mater. Des. 33, 127–135.
Amendola, V., Meneghetti, M., 2009. Self-healing at the nanoscale. Nanoscale. 1, 74–88.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 2012. Standard Test Method for Electrical Indication of Concrete’s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration. ASTM C1202. Philadelphia; USA.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 2015. Standard Test Method for Resistance of Concrete to Rapid Freezing and Thawing. ASTM C666A. Philadelphia; USA.
Amin, M.S., El-Gamal, S.M.A., Hashem, F.S., 2013. Effect of addition of nano-magnetite on the hydration characteristics of hardened Portland cement and high slag cement pastes. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 112(3), 1253–1259.
Andersen, P.J. and Johansen, V. 1991. Particle packing and concrete properties, Material Science of Concrete: II, Skalny, J and Mindess, S (Edited), American Ceramic Society, Inc., Westerville, Ohio. 111–147.
Awadalla, A., Zain, M.F.M., Kadhum, A.A.H., Abdalla, Z., 2011. Titanium dioxide as photocatalyses to create self-cleaning concrete and improve indoor air quality. Int. J. Phys. Sci. 6(29), 6767–6774.
Babu, G.R., 2013. Effect of nano-silica on properties of blended cement. Int. J. Comput. Eng. Res. 3(5), 50–55.
Bahaa, T., 2014. Effect of utilizing nano and micro silica on early properties of cement mortar. World Appl. Sci. J. 29(3), 370–382.
Baomin, W., Lijiu, W., Lai, F.C., 2008. Freezing resistance of HPC with nano-SiO2. J. Wuhan Univ. Technol. Mater. Sci. Ed. Feb. 2008, 85–88.
Barbesta, M., Schaffer, D., 2009. Concrete that cleans itself and the air: Photocatalytic cement helps oxidize pollutants. Conc. Int., 31–33.
Barbhuiya, S., Mukherjee, S., Nikraz, H., 2014. Effects of nano-Al2O3 on early-age microstructural properties of cement paste. Constr. Build. Mater. 52(2), 189–193.
Bartos, P.J.M., 2006. Nanotechnology in construction: A roadmap for development. Proceedings of ACI Session on “Nanotechnology of Concrete: Recent Developments and Future Perspectives” November 7, Denver, USA.
Behfarnia, K., Salemi, N., 2013. The effects of nano-silica and nano-alumina on frost resistance of normal concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 48(11), 580–584.
Bekas, D.G., Tsirka, K., Baltzis, D., Paipetis, A.S., 2016. Self-healing materials: A review of advances in materials, evaluation, characterization and monitoring techniques. Compos. Part B. 87(2), 92–119.
Birgisson, B., Mukhopadhyay, A.K., Geary, G., Khan, M., Sobolev, K., 2012. Nanotechnology in concrete materials: A synopsis. Transportation Research Circular E-C170. Transportation Research Board, Washington, United States of America.
Birgisson, B., Taylor, P., Armaghani, J., Shah, S.P., 2010. American road map for research for nanotechnology-based concrete materials. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2142, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 130–137.
Camiletti, J., Soliman, A.M., Nehdi, M.L., 2013. Effects of nano- and micro-limestone addition on early-age properties of ultra-high-performance concrete. Mater. Struct. 46(6), 881–898.
Chang, T-P., Shih, J-Y., Yang, K-M., Hsiao, T-C., 2007. Material properties of Portland cement paste with nanomontmorillonite. J Mater Sci. 42(17), 7478–7487.
Chen, J., Kou, S-C., Poon, C-S., 2012. Hydration and properties of nano-TiO2 blended cement composites. Cem. Concr. Compos. 34(5), 642–649.
Collodetti, G., Gleize, P.J.P., Monteiro, P.J.M., 2014. Exploring the potential of siloxane surface modified nano-SiO2 to improve the Portland cement pastes hydration properties. Constr. Build. Mater. 54(3), 99–105.
D’Alessandro, A., Rallini, M., Ubertini, F., Materazzi, A.L., Kenny, J.M., 2016. Investigations on scalable fabrication procedures for self-sensing carbon nanotube cement-matrix composites for SHM applications. Cem. Concr. Compos. 65(1), 200–213.
Dehn, F., Bahnemann, D., Bilger, B., 2005. Development of photocatalytically active coatings for concrete substrates. PRO 41: International RILEM Symposium on Environment-Conscious Materials and Systems for Sustainable Development (Edited Kashino and Ohama). RILEM Publications, France.
Drexler, K.E., Peterson, C., Pergamit, G., Unbounding the future. William Morrow, New York, 1991.
Feldman R.F., Sereda P.J., 1968. A model for hydrated Portland cement paste as deduced from sorption-length change and mechanical properties. Mater. Struct. 6(6), 509–519.
Ghafari, E., Costa, H., Júlio, E., Portugal, A., Durães, L., 2014. The effect of nanosilica addition on flowability, strength and transport properties of ultra-high performance concrete. Mater. Des. 59, 1–9.
Ghosh, S.K., 2009. Self-healing materials: Fundamentals, design strategies, and applications. Wiley-Vch Verlag GmbH, Germany.
Han, B., Ding, S., Yu, X., 2015. Intrinsic self-sensing concrete and structures: A review. Meas. 59, 110–128.
Han, B., Yu, X., Ou, J., 2014. Self-sensing concrete in smart structures. Butterworth-Heinemann. Oxford, United Kingdom.
Haruehansapong, S., Pulngern, T., Chucheepsakul, S., 2014. Effect of the particle size of nanosilica on the compressive strength and the optimum replacement content of cement mortar containing nano-SiO2. Constr. Build. Mater. 50(1), 471–477.
Heikal, M., Aleem, S.A.E., Morsi, W.M., 2013. Characteristics of blended cements containing nano-silica. HBRC J. 9(3), 243–255.
Hilloulin, B., Tittelboom, K.V., Gruyaert, E., Belie, N.D., Loukili, A., 2015. Design of polymeric capsules for self-healing concrete. Cem. Concr. Compos. 55(1), 298–307.
Hunger, H., Brouwers, H.J.H., 2009. Self-cleaning surfaces as an innovative potential for sustainable concrete. Excellence in Concrete Construction through Innovation (eds; Limbachiya and Kew). Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK.
Jalal, M., Fathi, M., Farzad, M., 2013. Effects of fly ash and TiO2 nanoparticles on rheological, mechanical, microstructural and thermal properties of high strength self-compacting concrete. Mech. Mater. 61(7), 11–27.
Janus, M., Zatorskaa, J., Czy˙zewskia, A., Bubacza, K., Kusiak-Nejmana, E., Morawski, A.W., 2015. Self-cleaning properties of cement plates loaded with N,C-modified TiO2 photocatalysts. Appl. Surf. Sci. 330(3), 200–206.
Ji, T., 2005. Preliminary study on the water permeability and microstructure of concrete incorporating nano-SiO2. Cem. Concr. Res. 35(10), 1943–1947.
Jo, B.W., Chakraborty, S., Kim, H., 2015a. Prediction of the curing time to achieve maturity of the nano-cement based concrete using the Weibull distribution model: A complementary data set. Data in Brief 4, 285–291.
Jo, B.W., Chakraborty, S., Kim, H., 2015b. Prediction of the curing time to achieve maturity of the nano cement based concrete using the Weibull distribution model. Constr. Build. Mater. 84(6), 307–314.
Jo, B-W., Kim, C-H., Tae, G-H., Park, J-B., 2007. Characteristics of cement mortar with nano-SiO2 particles. Constr. Build. Mater. 21(6), 1351–1355.
Khalaj, G., Nazari, A., 2012. Modeling split tensile strength of high strength self-compacting concrete incorporating randomly oriented steel fibers and SiO2 nanoparticles. Compos. Part B 43. 1887–1892.
Khaliq, W., Ehsan, M.B., 2016. Crack healing in concrete using various bio influenced self-healing techniques. Constr. Build. Mater. 102(1), 349–357.
Kim, K-M., Heo, Y-S., Kang, S-P., Lee, J., 2014. Effect of sodium silicate- and ethyl silicate-based nano-silica on pore structure of cement composites. Cem. Conc. Compos. 49(5), 84–91.
Konsta-Gdoutos, M.S., Aza, C.A., 2014. Self-sensing carbon nanotube (CNT) and nanofiber (CNF) cementitious composites for real time damage assessment in smart structures. Cem. Concr. Compos. 53(10), 162–169.
Koster, S.A.L., Mors, R.M., Nugteren, H.W., Jonkers, H.M., Meesters, G.M.H., van Ommen, J.R., 2015. Geopolymer coating of bacteria-containing granules for use in self-healing concrete. Procedia Eng. 102, 475–484.
Kumar, J., Srivastava, A., Bansal, A., 2013. Production of self-cleaning cement using modified titanium dioxide. Int. J. Innov. Res. Sci. Eng. Technol. 2(7), 2688–2693.
Land, G., Stephan, D., 2012. The influence of nano-silica on the hydration of ordinary Portland Cement. J. Mater. Sci. 47(2), 1011–1017.
Li, G., 2004. Properties of high-volume fly ash concrete incorporating nano-SiO2. Cem. Concr. Res. 34(6), 1043–1049.
Li, H., Xiao, H., Guan, X., Wang, Z., Yu, L., 2014. Chloride diffusion in concrete containing nano-TiO2 under coupled effect of scouring. Compos. Part B. 56(1), 698–704.
Li, H., Xiao, H-G., Yuan, J., Ou, J., 2004. Microstructure of cement mortar with nanoparticles. Compos. Part B. 35(3), 185–189.
Li, Q., Liu, Q., Peng, B., Chai, L., Liu, H., 2016. Self-cleaning performance of TiO2-coating cement materials prepared based on solidification/stabilization of electrolytic manganese residue. Constr. Build. Mater. 106(3), 236–242.
Lin, K.L., Chang, W.C., Lin, D.F., Luo, H.L., Tsai, M.C., 2008. Effects of nano-SiO2 and different ash particle sizes on sludge ash–cement mortar. J. Environ. Manag. 88(4), 708–714.
Liu, X., Chen, L., Liu, A., Wang, X., 2012. Effect of nano-CaCO3 on properties of cement paste. Energy Procedia. 16, 991–996.
Luo, M., Qian, C-X., Li, R-Y., 2015. Factors affecting crack repairing capacity of bacteria-based self-healing concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 87(7), 1–7.
Lv, L., Yang, Z., Chen, G., Zhu, G., Han, N., Schlangen, E., Xing, F., 2016. Synthesis and characterization of a new polymeric microcapsule and feasibility investigation in self-healing cementitious materials. Constr. Build. Mater. 105(2), 487–495.
Maheswaran, S., Bhuvaneshwari, B., Palani, G.S., Nagesh, R.I., Kalaiselvam, S., 2013. An overview on the influence of nano silica in concrete and a research initiative. Res. J. Recent. Sci. 2, 17–24.
ManiBharath, S., Sathyanarayanan, K.S., Sridharan, N., 2015. Self-sensing concrete using carbon fibre for health monitoring of structures under static loading. International Conference on Engineering Trends and Science & Humanities (ICETSH-2015). Tamilnadu, India.
Moradpour, R., Taheri-Nassaj, E., Parhizkar, T., Ghodsian, M., 2013. The effects of nanoscale expansive agents on the mechanical properties of non-shrink cement-based composites: The influence of nano-MgO addition. Compos. Part B. 55(12), 193–202.
Morsy, M.S., Al-Salloum, Y., Almusallam, T., Abbas, H., 2014. Effect of nano-metakaolin addition on the hydration characteristics of fly ash blended cement mortar. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 116(2), 845–852.
Mukharjee, B.B., Barai, S.V., 2014. Characteristics of mortars containing colloidal nano-silica. Int. J. Appl. Eng. Res. 9(1), 17–22.
Mukharjee, B.B., Barai, S.V., 2014. Influence of nano-silica on the properties of recycled aggregate concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 55(3), 29–37.
Najigivi, A., Khaloo, A., Iraji zad, A., Rashid, S.A., 2013. An artificial neural networks model for predicting permeability properties of nano silica–rice husk ash ternary blended concrete. Int. J. Concr. Struct. Mater. 7(3), 225–238.
Najigivi, A., Rashid, S.A., Aziz, F.A.A., Salleh, M.A.M., 2012. Water absorption control of ternary blended concrete with nano-SiO2 in presence of rice husk ash. Mater. Struct. 45(7), 1007–1017.
Nazari, A., 2011. The effects of curing medium on flexural strength and water permeability of concrete incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles. Mater. Struct. 44(4), 773–786.
Nazari, A., Riahi, S., 2011a. Effects of CuO nanoparticles on compressive strength of self-compacting concrete. Sādhanā. 36(3), 371–391.
Nazari, A., Riahi, S., 2011b. Prediction split tensile strength and water permeability of high strength concrete containing TiO2 nanoparticles by artificial neural network and genetic programming. Compos. Part B. 42(3), 473–488.
Nazari, A., Riahi, S., 2011c. Computer-aided design of the effects of Cr2O3 nanoparticles on split tensile strength and water permeability of high strength concrete. Sci. China Technol. Sci. 54(3), 663–675.
Nazari, A., Riahi, S., 2011d. Computer-aided design of the effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on split tensile strength and water permeability of high strength concrete. Mater. Des. 32(7), 3966–3979.
Nazari, A., Riahi, S., 2012. Computer-aided prediction of the ZrO2 nanoparticles effects on tensile strength and percentage of water absorption of concrete specimens. J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 28(1), 83–96.
Nik, A.S., Omran, O.L., 2013. Estimation of compressive strength of self-compacted concrete with fibers consisting nano-SiO2 using ultrasonic pulse velocity. Constr. Build. Mater. 44(7), 654–662.
Oltulu, M., Şahin, R., 2013. Effect of nano-SiO2, nano-Al2O3 and nano-Fe2O3 powders on compressive strengths and capillary water absorption of cement mortar containing fly ash: A comparative study. Energy Build. 58(3), 292–301.
Oltulu, M., Şahin, R., 2014. Pore structure analysis of hardened cement mortars containing silica fume and different nanopowders. Constr. Build. Mater. 53(2), 658–664.
Pattanaik, S.C., 2011. Self-Sealing crystalline coating and self-cleaning nanocoating for the concrete substrate for a sustainable development. In the Conference Proceedings of International Conference (ICTACE 2011). Hyderabad.
Pourjavadi, A., Fakoorpoor, S.M., Khaloo, A., Hosseini, P., 2012. Improving the performance of cement-based composites containing superabsorbent polymers by utilization of nano-SiO2 particles. Mater. Des. 42(12), 94–101.
Priya, K.V., Vinutha, D., 2014. Effect of nano silica in rice husk ash concrete. IOSR J. Mech. Civ. Eng. 39–43.
Qing, Y., Zenall, Z., Li, S., Rongshen, C., 2006. A comparative study on the pozzolanic activity between nano-SiO2 and silica fume. Journal of Wuhan University of Technology: Mater. Sci. Ed. 21(3), 153–157.
Quercia, G., Lazaro, A., Geus, J.W., Brouwers, H.J.H., 2013. Characterization of morphology and texture of several amorphous nano-silica particles used in concrete. Cem. Concr. Compos. 44(11), 77–92.
Quercia, G., Spiesz, P, Hüsken, G., Brouwers, H.J.H., 2014. SCC modification by use of amorphous nano-silica. Cem. Concr. Compos. 45(1), 69–81.
Quercia, G., Spiesz, P., Hüsken, G., Brouwers, J., 2012. Effects of amorphous nano-silica additions on mechanical and durability performance of SCC mixtures. International Congress on Durability of Concrete. Trondheim, Norway.
Rashad, A.M., 2014. A comprehensive overview about the effect of nano-SiO2 on some properties of traditional cementitious materials and alkali-activated fly ash. Constr. Build. Mater. 52(2), 437–464.
Rathi, V.R., Modhera, C.D., 2014. An overview on the influence of nano materials on properties of concrete. Int. J. Innov. Res. Sci. Eng. Technol. 3(2), 9100–9105.
Riahi, S., Nazari, A., 2011. Compressive strength and abrasion resistance of concrete containing SiO2 and CuO nanoparticles in different curing media. Sci. China Technol. Sci. 54(9), 2349–2357.
Roig-Flores, M., Moscato, S., Serna, P., Ferrara, L., 2015. Self-healing capability of concrete with crystalline admixtures in different environments. Constr. Build. Mater. 86(7), 1–11.
Said, A.M., Zeidan, M.S., Bassuoni, M.T., Tian, Y., 2012. Properties of concrete incorporating nano-silica. Constr. Build. Mater. 36(11), 838–844.
Salemi, N., Behfarnia, K., 2013. Effect of nanoparticles on durability of fiber-reinforced concrete pavement. Constr. Build. Mater. 48(11), 934–941.
Sanchez, F., Sobolev, K., 2010. Nanotechnology in concrete: A review. Constr. Build. Mater. 24(11), 2060–2071.
Shaikh, F.U.A., Supit, S.W.M., Sarker, P.K., 2014. A study on the effect of nano silica on compressive strength of high volume fly ash mortars and concretes. Mater. Des. 60(8), 433–442.
Shakhmenko, G., Juhnevica, I., Korjakins, A., 2013. Influence of sol-gel nanosilica on hardening processes and physically-mechanical properties of cement paste. Procedia Eng. 57, 1013–1021.
Sharobim, K.G., Mohammedin, H.A., 2013. The effect of nano-liquid on the properties of hardened concrete. HBRC J. 9(3), 210–215.
Shebl, S.S., Allie, L., Morsy, M.S., Aglan, H.A., 2009. Mechanical behavior of activated nano silicate filled cement binders. J. Mater. Sci. 44(6), 1600–1606.
Shekari, A.H., Razzaghi, M.S., 2011. Influence of nano particles on durability and mechanical properties of high performance concrete. Procedia. Eng. 14, 3036–3041.
Shen, W., Zhang, C., Li, Q., Zhang, W., Cao, L., Ye, J., 2015. Preparation of titanium dioxide nano particle modified photocatalytic self-cleaning concrete. J. Clean. Prod. 87(15), 762–765.
Singh, L.P., Karade, S.R., Bhattacharyya, S.K., Yousuf, M.M., Ahalawat, S., 2013. Beneficial role of nanosilica in cement based materials: A review. Constr. Build. Mater. 47(10), 1069–1077.
Sobolev, K., Flores, I., Hermosillo, R., Torres-Martínez, L.M., 2008. Nanomaterials and nanotechnology for high-performance cement composites. ACI Spec. Publ. 254, 93–120.
Sobolev, K., Gutiérrez, M.F., 2005. How nanotechnology can change the concrete world. American Ceram. Soc. Bull. 84(10), 14–18.
Stefanidou, M., Papayianni, I., 2012. Influence of nano-SiO2 on the Portland cement pastes. Compos. Part B. 43(6), 2706–2710.
Supit, S.W.M., Shaikh, F.U.A., 2015. Durability properties of high volume fly ash concrete containing nano-silica. Mater. Struct. 48(8), 2431–2445.
Tavakoli, H.R., Omran, O.L., Kutanaei, S.S., Shiade, M.F., 2014. Prediction of energy absorption capability in fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete containing nano-silica particles using artificial neural network. Lat. Am. J. Solids Struct. 11(6), 966–979.
Valipour, M., Mirdamadi, A., Shekarchi, M., 2010. Comparative study of nano-SiO2 and silica fume on gas permeability of high performance concrete (HPC). The 7th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures. Jeju, South Korea.
Vallée, F., Ruot, B., Bonafous, L., Guillot, L., Pimpinelli, N., Casar, L., Strini, A., Mapelli, E., Schiavi, L., Gobin, C., André, H., Moussiopoulos, N., Papadopoulos, A., Bartzis, J., Maggos, T., McIntyre, R., Lehaut-Burnout, C., Henrichsen, A., Laugesen, P., Amadelli, R., Kotzias, D., Pichat, O., 2005. Cementitious materials for self-cleaning and de-polluting façade surfaces. PRO 41: International RILEM Symposium on Environment-Conscious Materials and Systems for Sustainable Development (Edited; Kashino, N. and Ohama, Y.). RILEM Publications, France.
Wahab, A., Kumar, B.D., Bhaskar, M., Kumar, S.V., Swami, B.L.P., 2013. Concrete composites with nano silica, condensed silica fume and fly ash: Study of strength properties. Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 4(5), 1–4.
Weiguo, S., Mingkai, Z., Liqi, X., Wei, M., Zhi, C., 2008. Morphology difference between the alkali activated cement and Portland cement paste on multi-scale. J. Wuhan. Univ. Technol. Mater. Sci. Ed. 23(6), 923–926.
Wille, N.K., Loh, K.J., 2010. Nanoengineering ultra-high-performance concrete with multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Transportation Research Record 2142. Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2142 (2142), 119–126.
Yu, R., Spiesz, P., Brouwers, H.J.H., 2014a. Effect of nano-silica on the hydration and microstructure development of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) with a low binder amount. Constr. Build. Mater. 65(8), 140–150.
Yu, R., Tang, P., Spiesz, P., Brouwers, H.J.H., 2014b. A study of multiple effects of nano-silica and hybrid fibres on the properties of ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) incorporating waste bottom ash (WBA). Constr. Build. Mater. 60(6), 98–110.
Zapata-Orduìz, L.E., Portela, G., Suárez, O.M., 2014. Weibull statistical analysis of splitting tensile strength of concretes containing class F fly ash, micro/nano-SiO2. Ceram. Int. 40(5), 7373–7388.
Zhang, M-H., Islam, J., 2012. Use of nano-silica to reduce setting time and increase early strength of concretes with high volumes of fly ash or slag. Constr. Build. Mater. 29(4), 573–580.
Zhang, M-H., Islam, J., Peethamparan, S., 2012. Use of nano-silica to increase early strength and reduce setting time of concretes with high volumes of slag. Cem. Concr. Compos. 34(5), 650–662.
Zhao, A., Yang, J., Yang, E-K., 2015. Self-cleaning engineered cementitious composites. Cem. Concr. Compos. 64(11), 74–83.
Zhao, S., Sun, W., 2014. Nano-mechanical behavior of a green ultra-high performance concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 63(7), 150–160.
Zhen, H., Xiaorun, C., Huamei, Y., Xinhua, C., 2013. Hydro-abrasive erosion of concrete incorporated with nano-SiO2, super-fine slag or rubber powder. Wuhan Univ. J. Nat. Sci. 18(6), 535–540.

This book is for readers who want to become well-versed in the most important current research in the field of modern cement and concrete. The book will be useful for students, researchers, concrete scientists and technologists, and practicing engineers. Each chapter focuses on a specific modern concrete technology and offers a summary and critique of recent research findings and patents published in the most well-known and reputable publications.

You have not viewed any product yet.