In Advances in Medicine and Biology. Volume 146, the authors begin by exploring the mammalian eye lens, a unique transparent organ, with a distinctive cellular architecture and polarity. For more than a century, it has been used as a model to study mechanisms of induction, morphogenesis, differentiation and disease.
Following this, the authors discuss guanylate-binding protein-1 (GBP-1), an interferon-inducible large GTPase involved in the epithelial barrier and cell proliferation. Induction of GBP-1 by proinflammatory cytokines is regulated via various signaling pathways and is a reliable marker of interferon-γ-activated cells in various diseases.
This compilation also examines remifentanil, a synthetic fentanyl derivative and ultra-short acting, selective µ-opioid receptor agonist. Its chemical structure includes a methyl-ester ring that allows its hydrolysis by non-specific plasma and tissue esterases.
The authors suggest that the role of sevoflurane in preventing oxidative damage and inflammatory response to ventilator injury-induced lung injury requires further investigation. Sevoflurane is a halogenated anaesthetic developed in the early ‘70s which preserves the hypoxic vasoconstriction reflex, doesn’t irritate the airways, and maintains self-regulation of the district circles.
Additionally, the current knowledge on immune-checkpoint inhibitors, immune mediated hepatitis and pancreatitis is summarized. Immune-checkpoint inhibitors continue to revolutionize cancer therapy and are expected to be utilized in an increasing number of malignancies in the coming years.
The closing chapter discusses vitamin E, a collective term including compounds which are either naturally occurring or synthetic analogues exhibiting the biological activity of vitamin E. Vitamin E is a micronutrient and fat-soluble vitamin which has an important role in human beings, particularly children.
(Imprint: Nova Medicine and Health)