Advances in Medicine and Biology. Volume 135

Leon V. Berhardt (Editor)

Series: Advances in Medicine and Biology
BISAC: MED000000

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In the opening chapter of Advances in Medicine and Biology. Volume 135, the authors propose that to correctly interpret the results of procalcitonin accuracy studies for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, we must analyze the methods we use to measure procalcitonin performance.
Trypanosoma cruzi is a flagellated protozoan that causes Chagas disease, also known as America Trypanosomiasis. The authors discuss techniques for diagnosis, including parasitological methods based on microscopy, xenodiagnoses and microscopic examination of fresh anticoagulated blood or buffy coat.

The collection goes on to discuss rhabdomyolysis, a clinical syndrome caused by injury to skeletal muscle fibres with the release of their breakdown products, especially myoglobin, into the circulation. The condition is associated with traumatic injury, crush syndrome, extreme exercise, drugs, toxins and malignant hyperthermia among other things.

In the next review, the authors intend to aid our understanding of lipid metabolism and provide a rational basis for future research in drug development by analysing current data related to the role of mutual regulation between hormone-sensitive lipase and insulin, discussing unanswered questions in different lines of studies.

Following this, one study aims increase the activity of high-molecular-weight heparin through the development of a new high active heparin complex with glutamate. The thermodynamic simulation of chemical equilibria based on pH data and the molecular dynamics simulation were used.
Later, the structure of two human blood groups with both AB active glycoproteins (HOC 89 and Cyst 19) isolated from human ovarian cyst fluids are introduced. Their properties are characterized by interactions with mAbs against the human blood group (ABH), Lewis system, sialyl glycotopes and various applied lectins.

This collection also reviews differential diagnostic considerations to consider when making a diagnosis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors in the breast. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors account for approximately 5% of all soft tissue sarcomas and are associated with neurofibromatosis type I and a prior history of radiation. They are aggressive tumors with a propensity to recur and to develop distant metastases.
An analysis is provided concerning the literature regarding the clinicopathologic features of epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Particular attention is paid to how this variant may be differentiated from other diagnostic considerations and on the utility of molecular testing in the evaluation of these lesions.

Finnish type congenital nephrotic syndrome, also known as type 1 nephrotic syndrome (NPHS1), OMIM 256300, is caused by mutations in the nephrin gene. These mutations cause a congenital glomerulonephritis, which is particularly frequent in Finland (incidence of 1:8200 newborns). Since immunosuppressive therapy does not induce clinical remission, the authors propose that the best method of treatment is a bilateral nephrectomy and kidney transplantation.

In the subsequent chapter, the effect of advanced glycation end products on renal cell in diabetic nephropathy is discussed in respect to downstream alterations such as reactive oxygen species production, activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, nuclear factor-kappa B activation, synthesis of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and fibronectin leading to epithelial to mesenchymal transition.
In the concluding chapter, the potential problem of quinoline yellow as food additive is introduced, followed by detailed description of the electrochemical methods of detection. Quinoline yellow is commonly applied as a food colorant, however it may cause allergy symptoms in those allergic to aspirin and lead to severer hyperactivity in children.

Preface

Chapter 1. Procalcitonin and Diagnosis of Neonatal Sepsis: Moving On
(Claudio Chiesa, MD, Lucia Pacifico, MD, John F. Osborn, PhD, Michela Lavorato, MD, and Bernhard Resch, MD, Institute of Translational Pharmacology, National Research Council, Rome, Italy, and others)
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Chapter 2. Detecting Trypanosoma cruzi: A Review
(Gilberto Ballesteros-Rodea, Teresa Itandehui Martínez-Cuevas, Berenice Jiménez-Ramos, and Alberto Antonio-Campos, Departamento de Patología, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí. San Luis Potosí, México, and others)

Chapter 3. Acute Kidney Injury Due to Rhabdomyolysis
(Nadezda Petejova, Arnost Martinek and Josef Zadrazil, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Ostrava, University of Ostrava, Czech Republic, and others)
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Chapter 4. To Burn or Not to Burn: That is the Tale of HSL and Insulin
(Li Zeng and Yingjie Wu, Institute of Genome Engineered Animal Models for Human Diseases, and others)

Chapter 5. Identifying the Structure of a New Heparin Complex with Glutamic Acid and the Proof of Its High Anticoagulant Activity by Different Methods
(Lora S. Nikolaeva, Vladimir A. Palyulin and Dmitry S. Karlov, Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia)

Chapter 6. Glycan Structures and Recognition Functions of the Human Blood Group AB Active Cyst Glycoproteins
(Albert M. Wu, Yung Liang Chen and Jia Hau Liu, Molecular Glyco-Immunochemistry Lab., College of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Kwei-san, Taoyuan, Taiwan, and others)

Chapter 7. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors of the Breast
(Brigid E. Prayson, and J. Jordi Rowe, MD, College of Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, US, and others)

Chapter 8. Clinicopathologic Features of Epithelioid Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors
(Deborah Y. Park, and Richard A Prayson, MD, Med, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, US, and others)

Chapter 9. Finnish Nephrotic Syndrome: A Rare Congenital Form of Glomerulonephritis
(Consolación Rosado Rubio PhD, MD, Nephrology Department, Ávila Hospital, Ávila, Spain)

Chapter 10. Advanced Glycation End Product-Mediated Consequences in Diabetic Nephropathy
(Pawan Kumar Kare, PhD, Rishila Ghosh, PhD, Savita Bansal, PhD, Basu Dev Banerjee, PhD, Om Prakash Kalra, DM and Ashok Kumar Tripathi, PhD, Department of Biochemistry, Kalpana Chawla Govt. Medical College, Karnal, Haryana, India, and others)

Chapter 11. Quinoline Yellow in Food and Its Electrochemical Detection
(Li Fu and Aiwu Wang, College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China, and others)

Index

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