Advances in Medicine and Biology. Volume 130 begins by discussing proton pump inhibitors (patented in 1979) that selectively target the H,K- ATPase of gastric parietal cells as a reliable therapeutic regimen for management of acid reflux disease and gastric bleeding. Around the same time, H. pylori was recognized as the main cause of peptic ulcer. The following chapter explores how common bile duct stones can be predicted and investigated. In addition, the management of proven ductal calculi is discussed in the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative stages. The investigation of ductal stones is partly dependent upon patient presentation and liver function tests, but also on availability of imaging modality and surgical experience. Afterwards, the authors summarize the current knowledge regarding the toxic effects of STZ on mammalian DNA and chromosomes, putting emphasis on the most recent findings on this subject.
At the chromosome level, STZ induces chromosomal aberrations (including those ones involving telomeric sequences), micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges. A review of current state of knowledge of atmospheric parameter’s pathophysiological mechanisms and its cardiovascular risk effects is included. Additionally, some medical prevention strategies that can provide effective protection against the negative health effects of global climate change are presented. The authors go on to summarize the morphogenesis, 3D structure, and rearrangement of the IHBDs, as well as the cellular changes of cholangiocytes during development and regeneration. Recent advances based on gene targeting, lineage tracing, and three–dimensional (3D) analysis of the liver tissue have improved our understanding of the IHBDs morphogenesis and regeneration. The goal of the concluding chapter is to describe the current educational preparation and scope of practice of pediatric advance practice providers (APPs) and provide guidelines with a new practice model as to how to successfully integrate APPs into the pediatric emergency department. The pediatric health care and role of an acute care APP has evolved significantly in the last few years, with APPs seeing patients ranging from non-urgent to all kinds of pediatric emergencies.