In Advances in Medicine and Biology. Volume 128, the authors provide evidence that several families of GPCRs dynamically modulate microglial phenotypes and provide evidence that aberrations in G-protein coupled receptors-mediated signaling are prime contributors to a loss of homeostatic microglia states. A comprehensive landscape on the physiological conditions already known to be important for dendritic cell (DC) differentiation is included. Specifically: presenting stages of development of bone marrow stem cells; comparing the ontogeny of DCs in mice and humans; debating the differences between conventional DCs versus plasmacytoid DCs; highlighting that Langerhans cells (LCs) have different origins; discussing factors that may modulate the development of DC subsets; and emphasizing ontogenetic properties of DCs that make them different from monocytes and macrophages.
Next, the authors review ex vivo and in vitro studies about the effects of human soluble fibrinogen molecule on blood components behavior and its effects at physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as in vitro studies conducted in experimental animal models. The tacrolimus (TAC) metabolism is reviewed in a separate study which proposes the TAC metabolism rate (C/D ratio) as a novel tool to assist physicians in risk stratification to individualize therapy in patients after (renal) transplantation. Continuing, the book postulates that modulation of nitric oxide (NO) concentrations at the maternal-fetal interface is relevant for maintaining early gestation due to failures in vascular adaptations. NO regulates vascular tone, angiogenesis, and cellular aggregation and adhesion, which are important functions in establishing and maintaining normal pregnancy. This book also presents the research and development of a collaborative, social-networked approach to train elementary and middle-school students so that the students can be aware of their bad sitting posture and timely improve it. Results show that the proposed approach and the developed posture training tools were very effective in improving teens’ posture.