Advances in Health and Disease. Volume 59


Lowell T. Duncan (Editor)

Series: Advances in Health and Disease
BISAC: MED000000

Calcium hydroxide has been widely used in dentistry since the 1920s due to its several properties, including antimicrobial action, induction of hard tissue deposition and inhibition of tooth reabsorption. Chapter 1 describes the different uses of calcium hydroxide in dentistry discussing its properties and its importance in dentistry. Chapter Two focuses on the role of hyperhomocysteinemia in diabetes, osteoporosis, dyslipidemia, and other endocrine disorders. The various pathophysiological mechanisms, current evidence, therapeutic options, and future directions of targeting Hcy metabolism for lower Hcy levels are also discussed. Chapter Three provides evidence for the formation of β-structured protein aggregates (β-SPAs) in a number of diseases associated with the formation of abnormal tissues. β-SPA formation is of considerable interest since their properties lead to the impairment of the normal physiological processes in adjacent tissues, thereby ensuring the chronic course of the pathology. The mechanisms and causes of such complications are discussed. Next, clinical data on how high levels of homocysteine impact the onset and progression of dementia and stroke are reviewed. Preclinical data was also assessed and discussed in terms of mechanisms of how elevated levels of homocysteine impact brain function in stroke and dementia. Chapter 5 discusses the effects of chirality on drugs as well as its impacts on drug research and development processes in the context of national and international guidelines. Chapter 6 addresses the therapeutic potential of taurine. Chapter 7 summarizes mechanisms by which homocysteine (Hcy) affects cellular metabolism, delivers a broad account of the biological chemistry of pathophysiological consequences and clinical implications of Hcy. Chapter 8 reviews the control of milk secretion at the mammary gland level during stress conditions. The final chapter, Chapter 9, aims to review the management of candida infection in neonates.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Calcium Hydroxide in Dentistry
M. C. Prado¹, PhD, I. S. F. Telles², MSc, N. K. de Carvalho³, PhD, T. M. Duque⁴, PhD and M. Prado⁵, PhD
¹Department of Endodontics, Carioca Center for Oral Rehabilitation (CENCRO), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
²Postgraduate Program in Dentistry, Veiga de Almeida University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
³Department of Endodontics, Carioca Center for Oral Rehabilitation (CENCRO), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
⁴Department of Dentistry, University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil
⁵Postgraduate Program in Dentistry, Veiga de Almeida University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Chapter 2. Role of Homocysteine in Endocrine Disorders
Madhukar Mittal and Parth Jethwani
Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India

Chapter 3. Protein Aggregation as a Routine Complication of Metabolic Disorders
Natalia M. Voroshylova and Serhij V. Verevka
State Institution “O. S. Kolomiychenko Institute of Otolaryngology, Ukrainian NAMS”, Kyiv, Ukraine

Chapter 4. The Impact of Homocysteine on Stroke and Dementia: An Updated Review of Clinical Studies and Mechanisms
Purvaja Marella¹,², Gyllian B. Yahn¹,³, Jeemin Kang¹,² and Nafisa M. Jadavji¹,²,⁴,⁵, PhD
¹Biomedical Sciences, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, U.S.A.
²College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, U.S.A.
³College of Dental Medicine, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, U.S.A.
⁴College of Veterinary Medicine, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, U.S.A.
⁵Department of Neuroscience, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada

Chapter 5. Understanding Chirality and Its Role in Drug Discovery Research
W. Utembe¹,²,³, PhD
¹Toxicology and Biochemistry Department, National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOH), National Health Laboratory Services (NHLS), Johannesburg, South Africa
²Department of Environmental Heath, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
³Environmental Health Division, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Chapter 6. Molecular Mechanisms of Taurine in Inflammation and Its Therapeutic Potential
Ankita Mandal and Parames C. Sil
Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Chapter 7. What Is Homocysteine and Why Does It Matter?
E. Darendelioğlu¹ and A. Ayna²
¹Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Bingol University, Bingol, Turkey
²Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Bingol University, Bingol, Turkey

Chapter 8. Control of Milk Secretion at the Mammary Gland Level during Stress Conditions
Mohammad Rayees Dar, Mahendra Singh and Sunita Thakur
Animal Physiology Division, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India

Chapter 9. Candida Infection in Neonates
Isabel Miras Aguilar, PhD
Department of Neonatology, Getafe University Hospital, Madrid, Spain