In Advances in Health and Disease. Volume 4, the authors open by reflecting on the potential advantages and challenges of the focus group technique in health services research, based on a study conducted to better understand the perceptions and experiences related to access and utilization of healthcare services for immigrants in Portugal. Later, the authors examine Parvovirus B19 (PVB19), a widespread infection that affects 1-5% of pregnant women. The authors maintain that as PVB19 infection can cause severe morbidity and mortality, it should be part of the routine work up of complicated pregnancies, especially when fetal hydrops is suspected. This book also summarizes the evidence on propensity for TDM in anti-TNF therapy to guide interventions at therapeutic failure, while present data do not support the routine use of proactive TDM in everyday clinical practice. The authors maintain that the use of statins is necessary for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, and the criteria for assessing their hypolipidemic effect are clearly defined. Depending on the severity of experimental hyperlipoproteinemia, oral administration of atorvastatin may have a different effect on the overall activity of MMPs in the serum of mice. The following chapter discusses how employing focus groups provided the opportunity to 1) check cultural assumptions, 2) assess and prioritize areas of greatest perceived need, 3) tailor campaigns and outreach to the key values and beliefs of the population of focus, and 4) understand and capitalize on social media and other communication favored by Hispanic young adults in a minority serving institution in order to reduce HIV related health disparities. Next, Congenital Hypothyroidism is examined as the most common endocrine disorder in childhood. In the last years the decrease of the TSH recall threshold has led to an increased of mild forms with in situ glands at the first diagnosis. As such, the re-evaluation of the diagnosis has become an important procedure to distinguish transient forms from permanent ones. Three types of Burkitt’s Lymphoma are also examined, including Endemic (African), Sporadic (non-African) and HIV-associated per WHO classification. Compared to the endemic type which is commonly associated with EBV infection, the incidence of EBV is lower in the other two types (20% in sporadic and 30- 40% in HIV patients). After which, end stage renal disease is examined in the same manner, reviewing the diagnosis, management and consequences. In a separate study, an integrated mixed method approach was used in 5 coastal communities in Tongatapu, Tonga, where some community members had their health and well-being affected by climate change and some did not. Results indicated that physical, mental and spiritual aspects of well-being were affected by climate change and that people were eager to see the implementation of strategies to improve their health and restore their mental well-being. The concluding study aimed to verify the influence of different motivational interventions for oral hygiene autonomy promotion on the biofilm control in individuals with special needs. The data suggest that motivational activities can be developed to promote autonomy in other aspects of general health, resulting in the improvement of the quality of life of individuals with special needs.