In this compilation, the authors begin by examining the correlation between stress tolerance, metabolism, and energy balance using insects as model systems and demonstrate how in recent years, we have learned mostly from physiological responses in insects that many parallels exist between invertebrate and mammalian homeostasis. Therefore, studying insects as simpler model organisms can provide useful information for elucidating the complexities of mammalian metabolism. Following this, the book presents a mixed-methods study with the goal of adding to the existing body of knowledge in the areas of HIV-related risk behaviors, HIV testing behaviors, and the various factors that act as barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. The authors go on to deliberate on the advantages and disadvantages of potential strategies for the treatment of mitochondrial diseases caused by mutant mtDNA. As cells contain multiple copies of mtDNA, pathogenic mtDNA mutations frequently coexist with wild-type mtDNA, a phenomenon known as “heteroplasmy”. The patient attachment style is investigated as a moderator of the patient and practitioner relationship in order to potentially promote clinical interventions aimed to enhance the adherence to medical care, improving health-care outcomes and patient quality of life. Next, the patterns of dislocation and subluxation are reviewed, along with associated issues, in order to allow surgeons to provide optimal care for these patients. Hip dislocation or subluxation may occur after surgical procedure and has been reported after hip arthroscopy and other open procedures.
The authors discuss Castleman’s disease, a rare lymphoproliferative syndrome derived into two groups: unicentric and multicentric. Unicentric Castleman’s disease is presented as an isolated mass, such as mediastitial lymph node, and is curable with surgery in most cases. Multicentric Castleman’s diseaseis comprised of heterogeneous disorders with various etiologies and represents systemic inflammatory symptoms, such as fever and weight loss. The subsequent chapter discusses the evidence concerning the involvement of microbiota on the appearance and development of inflammatory bowel diseases and the eventual response to medical treatment. Despite promising links between microbial composition and disease phenotypes, to date no causative role for the microbiome has been established, and our understanding of the dynamic role of the human microbiome in inflammatory bowel diseases remains incomplete. The book also examines sudden death, an unexpected event that happens in healthy people or in stable patients. It must occur within one hour from the onset of the first symptoms, and it is precipitated by a cardiac arrest, which is irreversible due to the absence of adequate assistance. In closing, amantadine is examined in the context of treatment of Parkinson’s disease and its complications. As a tricyclic amine, it enhances the release of dopamine at the synaptic cleft and inhibits its uptake, acts directly at the D2 receptor and up-regulates it, has anti-muscarinic properties, and non-competitive antagonism of the NMDA receptor. It has been studied as both a monotherapy or adjuvant therapy for Parkinson’s disease with mixed results. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical)