A study of socio-demographic characteristics, aetiology, types of tinnitus, and modes of management among patients referred for tinnitus treatment in a tertiary referral Malaysian hospital


Authors: Raja FB Shah, Nurhazirah B Ali, Amirul A Saad, Chii Chii Chew, and Philip Rajan
Page Range: 45-52
Published in: International Journal on Disability and Human Development, Volume 22 Issue 1
ISSN: 2191-1231

Table of Contents


The global prevalence of tinnitus ranges from 5.1 to 42.7%. There is a paucity of tinnitus epidemiology in Malaysia. Research in this field will provide important insights into the tinnitus burden of the country. Objective: To determine the socio-demographic characteristics, aetiology, and types of tinnitus, and modes of management among tinnitus patients. Study group: Patients attending a tinnitus clinic at the Otorhinolaryngology department of a tertiary referral hospital in Malaysia in 2019. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to review medical records of patients aged 19 years and above. A data collection form was created to extract the data. Results: The mean age of 97 patients with tinnitus was 55.95 years (SD: 11.59), with the majority of them being male patients (57.7%). The distribution of Malay (39.2%) and Chinese (38.1%) ethnicity were almost equal among the patients. About a third of them (35.1%) reported they suffered from right-sided tinnitus. Presbycusis was the most common cause of tinnitus (32.0%). Systemic disease was present in 44.3% of the patients. Sensorineural hearing loss was seen in 59.8% of patients with bilateral hearing loss. All of the patients experienced subjective tinnitus. The majority of them have tinnitus disturbance ranging from grade 1-slight (28.9%) to 2-mild (15.5%). Most patients (56.7%) were managed with only one type of intervention, which was counselling. Conclusion: Tinnitus is common in middle-aged people with sensorineural hearing loss and it is frequently caused by presbycusis. Most of them had slight tinnitus and only required counselling for the management of tinnitus.

Keywords: Tinnitus, presbycusis, hearing loss, impairment, Malaysia

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