A Manual for Cervical Cancer Screening and Control: Principles, Practice and New Perspectives

Margherita Branca, MD, PhD
Former Director of Cervical Cancer Screening and Cytopatology Unit, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy

Adhemar Longatto Filho, PhD
Laboratory of Medical Investigation, Faculty of Medicine, Sao Paulo University

Series: Cancer Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatments
BISAC: MED062000

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Volume 10

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Cervical cancer (CC) is a major global health problem. Worldwide, an estimated 530,000 new cases of CC and 275,000 deaths from this disease are encountered every year. CC affects particularly women less than 45 years of age and it is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in the developing and underdeveloped countries, where 60–80% of cases are detected in advanced stages. After Human Papillomavirus (HPV) identification as the infectious etiological agent and elucidation of the natural history of CC, this tumor has become the most preventable and curable of all cancers. Well-organized screening programs with Papanicolaou (Pap) smear are known to be successful in decreasing both mortality and morbidity of this disease. This book describes the optional screening programs for CC prevention, whether organized, opportunistic or spontaneous and also their merits and weaknesses.

Monitoring of the pathways and procedures of CC screening are mandatory in order to minimise the risks (wrong diagnosis, over-diagnosis, over-treatment) and maximize the benefits. In an optimal setting, the women should be the focus of the screening intervention and receive basic information on the crucial points of CC screening, so as to improve women’s collaboration and compliance. The availability of alternative new screening tools to detect pre-cancer lesions provide new opportunities for CC prevention, as do HPV vaccines implemented in early life before viral exposure. This book, rich in pictures, tables and flowcharts is a comprehensive treatise on CC screening: its 14 chapters illustrate the fundamental principles and the necessary interventions for CC prevention and control and a guide for all medical and paramedical professionals involved in the interplay of CC screening. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical )

Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1 - The Global Burden of Cervical Cancer (pp. 1-18)

Chapter 2 - Opportunities for Cervical Cancer Prevention: The Primary Prevention (pp. 19-32)

Chapter 3 - Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infections (pp. 33-44)

Chapter 4 - Risk Factors for Cervical Cancer (pp. 45-54)

Chapter 5 - Secondary Prevention with Screening Programs (pp. 55-82)

Chapter 6 - Cancer Prevention in Developing Countries (pp. 83-92)

Chapter 7 - Cervical Cytology and Alternative Methods of Screening (pp. 93-106)

Chapter 8 - Management of Women with Abnormal Cytological Results (pp. 1-07-134)

Chapter 9 - Use of Biomarkers in Cervical Cancer Screening (pp. 135-166)

Chapter 10 - Basic Concepts of Quality and Accreditation in Health Care Services (pp. 167-184)

Chapter 11 - Quality Issues in Screening Test Procedures (pp. 185-218)

Chapter 12 - Quality Issues in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program: Indicators and Standards (pp. 219-240)

Chapter 13 - Instruction and Training of Personnel in a Cervical Cancer Screening Program (pp. 241-264)

Chapter 14 - Universal Hygienic Measures and Precautions for Infection Prevention in Gynecological Ambulatory Centers and Hospitals (pp. 265-278)

Glossary

Bibliography

Index

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