A Handbook on Estrogen Receptors in the Brain

Vijay Paramanik, PhD
Assistant Professor, Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, Amarkantak, India

Series: Neuroscience Research Progress
BISAC: MED057000



Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick


Digitally watermarked, DRM-free.
Immediate eBook download after purchase.

Product price
Additional options total:
Order total:



The present book covers estrogen, its receptors and estrogen mediated gene regulation in the brain. Further, it explains the mechanism of estrogen action and dysfunction leading to diseases. Briefly, estrogen mediates its multiple functions in the brain through two well-characterized receptors: ERá and ERâ. Upon binding with estrogen, ER recruits coregulators, which are responsible for tissue specific regulation. When coregulators activate the transcription of a particular gene, they become coactivators; when they repress the activity of particular gene, they are called corepressors. These coregulators make a bridge between the basal transcription machinery and the receptors by protein-protein interaction. Estrogen disrupters are also explained in this book. Furthermore, the role of estrogen and its receptors are explained in the context of aging. Taken together, this book shall be self-explanatory concerning estrogen action in the brain in various aspects. Therefore, it is intended for researchers interested in the aforementioned aspects. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical)

Chapter 1. Introduction of Estrogen

Chapter 2. Synthesis of Estrogen

Chapter 3. Estrogen Receptors

Chapter 4. Different Types of Estrogen Receptors

Chapter 5. Mechanism of Estrogen Action

Chapter 6. Estrogen Disrupters

Chapter 7. Estrogen, ERs, Coregulators and Diseases

Chapter 8. Estrogen, ERs, Coregulators and Aging

Chapter 9. Conclusion

Chapter 10. Bibliography


Chapter 1

Acconcia F, Kumar R. 2006. “Signaling regulation of genomic and non-genomic functions of estrogen receptors”. Cancer Letters 238:1-14.
Baker ME.2011.”What are the physiological estrogens?”. Steroids 78 (3):337-40.doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.12.011
Bebo BF Jr, Fyfe-Johnson A, Adlard K, Beam AG, Vandenbark AA, Offner H.2001. “Low-dose estrogen therapy ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in two different inbred mouse strains”. J Immunol. 166:2080-2089.
Couse JF, Lindzey J, Grandien K, Gustafsson JA, Korach KS.1997.”Tissue distribution and quantitative analysis of ERα and ERβ messenger ribonucleic acid in the wild-type and ERα knockout mouse. Endocrinology 138:4613-4621.
Dubal DB, Zhu H, Yu J, Rau SW, Shughrue PJ, Merchenthaler I, Kindy MS, Wise PM. 2001. “Estrogen receptor α, not β, is a critical link in estradiol-mediated protection against brain injury”. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:1952-1957.
Fang H, Tong W, Shi LM, Blair R, Perkins R, Branham W, Hass BS, Xie Q, Dial SL, Moland CL, Sheehan DM.2001.”Structure-activity relationships for a large diverse set of natural, synthetic, and environmental estrogens”. Chemical Res Toxicol 14:280-294.
Files JA, Ko MG, Pruthi S.2011. “Bioidentical hormone therapy”. Mayo Clin Proc 86(7): 673-680.
Fugger HN, Cunningham SG, Rissman EF, Foster TC.1998. “Sex differences in the activational effect of ER α on spatial learning”. Hormone Behav 34:163-170.
Geary N, Asarian L, Korach KS, Pfaff DW, Ogawa S. 2001. “Deficits in E2-dependent control of feeding, weight gain, and cholecystokinin satiation in ERα null mice”. Endocrinology 142:4751-4757.
Gillies GE, McArthur S. 2010. “Estrogen actions in the brain and the basis for differential action in men and women: A case for sex-specific medicines”. Pharmacol Rev. 62:155-198.
Gupta S, Mehrotra S, Villalón CM, Perusquía M, Saxena PR, Maassen A, Brink VD.2007. “Potential role of female sex hormones in the pathophysiology of migraine”. Pharmacol Therap. 113:321-340.
Hughes CL.1988. Phytochemical mimicry of reproductive hormones and modulation of herbivore fertility by phytoestrogens. Environ Health Persp. 78: 171-174.
Kuiper-Goodman T, Scott PM, Watanabe H.1987. Risk assessment of the mycotoxin zearalenone”. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 7 (3): 253-306.
Lund TD, West TW, Tian LY, Bu LH, Simmons DL, Setchell KDR, Adlercreutz H and Lephart ED.2001. “Visual spatial memory is enhanced in female rats (but inhibited in males) by dietary soy phytoestrogens”. BMC Neurosci. doi: 10.1186/1471-2202-2-20.
Markham JA, Pych JC, Juraska JM. 2002 “Ovarian hormone replacement to aged ovariectomized female rats benefits acquisition of the Morris water maze”. Hormone Behav 42:284-293.
McCarthy MM, Auger AP, Bale TL, De Vries GJ, Dunn GA, Forger NG, Murray EK, Nugent BM, Schwarz JM, Wilson ME.2009.”The epigenetics of sex differences in the brain”. J Neurosci 29:12815-12823.
Naftolin F.1994. “Brain aromatization of androgens”. J Reprod Med 39:257-261.
Nomura M, Durbak L, Chan J, Smithies O, Gustafsson JA, Korach, KS, Pfaff DW, Ogawa S. 2002.”Genotype age interactions on aggressive behavior in gonadally intact estrogen receptor beta knockout (beta ERKO) male mice”. Hormone Behav. 41:288-296.
Puma GL, Puddu V, Tsang HK, Gora A, Toepfer B.2010.”Photocatalytic oxidation of multicomponent mixtures of estrogens (estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and estriol (E3)) under UVA and UVC radiation: Photon absorption, quantum yields and rate constants independent of photon absorption”. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2010.05.015
Rissman EF, Heck AL, Leonard JE, Shupnik MA, Gustafsson JA. 2002.” Disruption of estrogen receptor β gene impairs spatial learning in female mice”. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:3996-4001.
Sandstrom NJ, Williams CL.2001.”Memory retention is modulated by acute estradiol and progesterone replacement”. Behavior Neurosci 115:384-393.
Shughrue PJ. Merchenthaler I.2001.”Distribution of estrogen receptor β immunoreactivity in the rat central nervous system”. J Comp Neurol. 436:64-81.
Tanapat P, Hastings NB, Reeves AJ, Gould E. 1999. “Estrogen stimulates a transient increase in the number of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the adult female rat”. J Neurosci 19:5792-5801
Tata JR. 2005.”One hundred years of hormones”. EMBO Rep 6:490-496.
Woolley CS, Gould E, Frankfurt M, McEwen BS.1990. “Naturally occurring fluctuation in dendritic spine density on adult hippocampal pyramidal neurons”. J Neurosci 10:4035-4039.
Yildiz F 2005. Phytoestrogens in Functional Foods. Taylor & Francis Ltd. pp. 3-5, 210-211.
Zinedine A, Soriano JM, Moltó JC, Mañes J.2007.”Review on the toxicity, occurrence, metabolism, detoxification, regulations and intake of zearalenone: an oestrogenic mycotoxin”. Food Chem. Toxicol 45 (1): 1-18.

Chapter 2

Chen HC, Farese RV.1999. “Steroid hormones: Interactions with membrane-bound receptors”. Curr Biol R478-R481.
Lin CY, Ström A, Vega VB, Kong SL, Yeo AL, Thomsen JS, Chan WC, Doray B, Bangarusamy DK, Ramasamy A, Vergara LA, Tang S, Chong A, Bajic VB, Miller LD, Gustafsson JA, Liu ET. 2004. Discovery of estrogen receptor alpha target genes and response elements in breast tumor cells. Genome Biol 5 (9): R66. doi:10.1186/gb-2004-5-9-r66
Darabi M, Ani M, Panjehpour M, Rabbani M, Movahedian A, Zarean E. 2011. Effect of estrogen receptor β A1730G polymorphism on ABCA1 gene expression response to postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 15 (1-2): 11-15.
Durr-e-Nayab Masood, Emir C. Roach, Katie G. Beauregard, Raouf A. Khalil. 2011. Impact of sex hormone metabolism on the vascular effects of menopausal hormone therapy in cardiovascular disease. Curr Drug Metab 11(8): 693-714.

Handa RJ, Ogawa S, Wang JM, Herbison AE.2012. Roles for estrogen receptor β in adult brain function. J Neuroendocrinol 24 (1): 160-173.
Herrington DM, Parks JS.2004. Estrogen and HDL.. All that glitters is not gold. Arterioscl, Thrombosis Vasc Biol 24:1741-1742.
Heiman JR, Rupp H, Janssen E, Newhouse SK, Brauer M, Laan E.2011. Sexual desire, sexual arousal and hormonal differences in premenopausal US and Dutch women with and without low sexual desire. Horm Behav 59 (5): 772-779.
Hiller J. 2005. Gender differences in sexual motivation. J men's healt gend 2:339-345.
Jasienska G1, Ziomkiewicz A, Thune I, Lipson SF, Ellison PT.2006. Habitual physical activity and estradiol levels in women of reproductive age. Eur J Cancer Prev 15(5):439-445.

Mechoulam R, Brueggemeier RW, Denlinger DL.2005. Estrogens in insects. Cell Molec Life Sci. 40 (9): 942-944.
Micevych P, Sinchak K.2013.”Temporal and concentration dependent estradiol effects on neural pathways mediating sexual receptivity”. J Neuroendocrinol. 25:1012-1023.

Nelson LR, Bulun SE.2001.Estrogen production and action. J Am Acad Dermatol 45 (3 Suppl): S116-124. doi:10.1067/mjd.2001.117432.
Rivera WLM, Papalia M, Davis SR, Burger HG.2004.”Androgen insufficiency in women: diagnostic and therapeutic implications”. Human Rep Update 10:42-43.

Chapter 3

Bakas P, Liapis A, Vlahopoulos S, Giner M, Logotheti S, Creatsas G, Meligova AK, Alexis MN, Zoumpourlis V.2008.”Estrogen receptor alpha and beta in uterine fibroids: a basis for altered estrogen responsiveness”.
Fertility and Sterility 90 (5): 1878-1885.

Bourguet W, Germain P, Gronemeyer H.2000.”Nuclear receptor ligand-binding domains: three-dimensional structures, molecular interactions and pharmacological implications”. Trends in Pharmacol Sci. 21 (10): 381-388.
Couse JF, Lindzey J, Grandien K, Gustafsson JA, Korach KS.1997.”Tissue distribution and quantitative analysis of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER alpha) and estrogen receptor-beta (ER beta) messenger ribonucleic acid in the wild-type and ER alpha-knockout mouse”. Endocrinology 138(11):4613-4621.

Evans RM. 1988.”The steroid and thyroid hormone receptor super family”. Science 240:889-895.
Jensen EV, DeSombre ER.1973. “Estrogen-receptor interaction”. Science 182:126-134.
Mäkelä S, Savolainen H, Aavik E, Myllärniemi M, Strauss L, Taskinen E, Gustafsson JA, Häyry P.1999.”Differentiation between vasculoprotective and uterotrophic effects of ligands with different binding affinities to estrogen receptors α and β”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 8; 96(12): 7077-7082.

Peng J, Sengupta S, Jordan VC.2009. Potential of selective estrogen receptor modulators as treatments and preventives of breast cancer. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 9(5): 481-499.

Rey JM, Pujol P, Dechaud H, Edouard E, Hedon B, Maudelonde T.1998.”Expression of estrogen receptor-α splicing variants and estrogen receptor-β in endometrium of infertile patients”. Molec Hum Reprod. 4(7) 641-647.
Thakur MK, Paramanik V. 2009. “Role of steroid hormone coregulators in health and diseases”. Horm Res 71:194-200.
Toft D, Gorski J. 1966.”A receptor molecule for estrogens: Isolation from the rat uterus and preliminary characterization”. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 55:1574-1581.
Walter P, Green S, Greene G, Krust A, Bornert JM, Jeltsch JM, Staub A, Jensen E, Scrace G, Waterfield M, Chambon P.1985.”Cloning of the human estrogen receptor cDNA”. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:7889-7893.

Chapter 4

Bjorn L, Sjoberg M. 2005.”Mechanism of estrogen receptor signaling: convergence of genomic and non genomic actions on target genes”. Molec Endocrinol 19:833-842.
Chen J, Lipska BK, Halim N, Ma QD, Matsumoto M, Melhem S, Kolachana BS, Hyde TM, Herman MM, Apud J, Egan MF, Kleinman JE, Weinberger DR.2004. “Functional analysis of genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT): effects on mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in postmortem human brain”. American J Hum Genet 75:807-821.
Chen S, Zhou D, Yang C, Sherman M. 2001.”Molecular basis for the constitutive activity of estrogen-related receptor α-1”. J Biol Chem 276:28465-28470.
Dehal P, Satou Y, Campbell RK, Chapman J, Degnan B, Tomaso A, Davidson B, Gregorio A, Gelpke M, Goodstein DM.2002.”The draft genome of Ciona intestinalis: insights into chordate and vertebrate origins”. Science 298:2157-2167.
Giguère V, Yang N, Segui P, Evans RM. 1988. “Identification of a new class of steroid hormone receptors”. Nature 331:91-94.
Hall JM, Course JF, Korach KS.2001. “The multifaceted mechanism of estradiol and estrogen receptor signaling”. J Biol Chem 276:36869-36872.
Hong H, Yang L, Stallcup MR.1999.”Hormone-independent transcriptional activation and coactivator binding by novel orphan nuclear receptor ERR3”. J Biol Chem 274:22618-22626.
Ishibashi O, Kawashima H. 2001.”Cloning and characterization of the functional promoter of mouse estrogen receptor beta gene”. Biochimica Biophys Act 1519:223-229.
Kos M, O’Brien S, Flouriot G, Gannon F.2000. Tissue specific expression of multiple mRNA variants of the mouse estrogen receptor α gene. FEBS Lett 477:15-20.
Kos M, Reid G, Denger S, Gannon F.2001.”Genomic organization of the human ERα gene promoter region”. Molec Endocrinol 15:2057-2063.
Kraus WL, Mclnerney EM, Katzenellenbogen BS.1995.”Ligand-dependent, transcriptionally productive association of the amino-and carboxyl-terminal regions of a steroid hormone nuclear receptor”. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:12314-12318.
Kuiper GG, Carlsson B, Grandien K, Enmark E, Haggblad J, Nilsson S, Gustafsson JA.1997. “Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta”. Endocrinology. 138:863-870.
Leung YK, Mak P, Hassan S, Ho SM.2006.”Estrogen receptor (ER)-β isoforms: A key to understanding ER-β signaling”. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:13162-13167.
Mitra SW, Hoskin E, Yudkovitz J, Lisset P, Wilkinson HA, Hayashi S, Pfaff DW, Ogawa S, Rohner SP, Scheffer JM, McEwen BS, Alves SE. 2003.”Immunolocalization of estrogen receptor β in the mouse brain: comparison with estrogen receptor α”. Endocrinology 144:2055-2067.
Moore JT, McKee DD, Slentz KK, Moore LB, Jones SA, Horne EL, Su JL, Kliewer SA, Lehmann JM, Willson TM.1998. “Cloning and characterization of human estrogen receptor beta isoforms”. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 247:75-78.
Mosselman S, Polman J, Dijkema R.1996.”ER beta: identification and characterization of a novel human estrogen receptor”. FEBS Lett 392:49-53.
Nilsson S, Gustafsson JA.2002 “Estrogen receptor action”. Critic Rev Eukaryo Gene Expr 12:237-257.
Pedram A, Razandi M, Wallace DC, Levin ER. 2006. “Nature of functional estrogen receptors at the plasma membrane”. Molec Endocrinol 20:1996-2009.
Pike ACW, Brzozowski AM, Hubbard RE, Bonn T, Thorsell AG, Engstrom O, Ljunggren J, Gustafsson JÅ, Carlquist M.1999. “Structure of the ligand-binding domain of oestrogen receptor β in the presence of a partial agonist and a full antagonist”. EMBO J 18:4608-4618.
Poola I, Abraham J, Baldwin K, Saunders A, Bhatnagar R.2005. “Estrogen receptors beta4 and beta5 are full length functionally distinct ER beta isoforms: cloning from human ovary and functional characterization”. Endocrine 27:227-238.
Ruff M, Gangloff M, Wurtz JM, Moras D.2000.”Estrogen receptor transcription and transactivation: structure -function relationship in DNA and ligand binding domains of estrogen receptors”. Breast Cancer Res 2:353-359.
Stirone C, Duckles SP, Krause DN, Procaccio V. 2005.”Estrogen increases mitochondrial efficiency and reduces oxidative stress in cerebral blood vessels”. Molec Pharmacol 68:959-965.
Tora L, White J, Brou C, Tasset D, Webster N, Scheer E, Chambon P.1989.”The human estrogen receptor has two independent non acidic transcriptional activation functions”. Cell 59: 477-487.
Tremblay GB, Tremblay A, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA, Labrie F, Giguere V.1997. “Cloning, chromosomal localization and functional analysis of the murine estrogen receptor β”. Molec Endocrinol 11:353-365.
Warner M, Nilsson S, Gustafsson JA.1999. “The estrogen receptor family”. Current Opin Obstet Gynecol 11:249-254.

White R, Lees JA, Needham M, Ham J, Parker M.1987.”Structural organization and expression of the mouse estrogen receptor”. Molec Endocrinol 1:735-744.
Yang N, Shigeta H, Shi H, Teng CT.1996.”Estrogen-related receptor, hERR1, modulates estrogen receptor-mediated response of human lactoferrin gene promoter”. J Biol Chem 271:5795-5804.

Chapter 5

Bjorn L, Sjoberg M. 2005. “Mechanism of estrogen receptor signaling: Convergence of genomic and non genomic actions on target genes”. Molec Endocrinol 19:833-842.
Cicatiello L, Addeo R, Sasso A, Altucci L, Petrizzi VB, Borgo R, Cancemi M, Caporali S, Caristi S, Scafoglio C, Teti D, Bresciani F, Perillo B, Weisz A.2008.”Estrogens and progesterone promote persistent CCND1 gene activation during G1 by inducing transcriptional derepression via c-Jun/c-Fos/estrogen receptor (progesterone receptor) complex assembly to a distal regulatory element and recruitment of cyclin D1 to its qwn gene promoter”. Mol Cell Biol. 24(16): 7260-7274.

Castoria G, Migliaccio A, Bilancio A, Di Domenico M, Falco AD, Lombardi M, Fiorentino R, Varrichhio L, Barone MV, Aurichhio F.2001 “PI3-kinase in concert with Src promotes the S-phase entry of estradiol -stimulated MCF-7 cells”. EMJO J 20:6050-6059.
El-Tanani MK, Green CD.”1997.”Interaction between estradiol and growth factors in the regulation of specific gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells”. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 60:269-276.
Faulds MH, Petterson K, Gustafsson JA, Haldosen LA.2001.”Cross-talk between ERs and signal transducer and activator of transcription in E2 dependent and involves two functionally separate mechanisms”. Molec Endocrionol 15:1929-1940.
Hall JM, Course JF, Korach KS.2001.”The multifaceted mechanism of estradiol and estrogen receptor signaling”. J Biol Chem 276:36869-36872.
Kousteni S, Han L, Chen JR, Almeida M, Plotkin LI, Bellido T, Manolagas SC.2003.”Kinase -mediated regulation of common transcription factors accounts for the bone -protective effects of sex steroids”. J Clin Invest 111:1651-1664.
Lannigan DA. 2003.”Estrogen receptor phosphorylation”. Steroids 68:1-9.
Legube G, Trouche D.2003. “Regulating histone acetyl transferases and deacetylases. EMBO Rep. 2003 Oct; 4(10): 944-947.
Manavathi B, Kumar R.2006.”Steering estrogen signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus: two sides of the coin”. J Cell Physiol 207:594-604.
Marino M, Acconcia F, Bresciani F, Weisz A, Trentalance A.2002.”Distinct nongenomic signal transduction pathways controlled by 17β-estradiol regulate DNA synthesis and cyclin D1 gene transcription in HepG2 cells”. Molec Biol Cell 13:3720-3729.
McCarthy MM, Auger AP, Bale TL, De Vries GJ, Dunn GA, Forger NG, Murray EK, Nugent BM, Schwarz JM, Wilson ME.2009.”The epigenetics of sex differences in the brain”. J Neurosci 29:12815-12823.
Porter W, Saville B, Hoivik D, Safe S.1997.” Functional synergy between the transcription factor Sp1 and the estrogen receptor”. Molec Endocrinol 11:1569-1580.
Powell E, Xu W. 2008.”Intermolecular interactions identify ligand-selective activity of estrogen receptor α/β dimmers”. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105:19012-19017.
Razandi M, Pedram A, Merchenthaler I, Greene GL, Levin ER.2004.”Plasma membrane receptors exist and functions as dimer”. Molec Endocrinol 18:2854-2865.
Revankar CM, Cimino DF, Sklar LA, Arterburn JB, Prossnitz ER.2005.”A trans-membrane intracellular estrogen receptor mediates rapid cell signaling”. Science 307:1625-1630.
Romashkova JA, Makarov SS.1999.”NF-kappaB is a target of Akt in anti-apoptotic PDGF signaling”. Nature 401:86-90.
Safe S. 2001.”Transcriptional activation of genes by 17β-estradiol through estrogen receptor Sp1 interactions”. Vitamin Horm 62:231-252.
Sak K, Everaus H.2004.”Nongenomic effects of 17β-estradiol diversity of membrane binding sites”. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 88:323-335.
Simoncini T, Mannella P, Fornari L, Caruso A, Varone G, Genazzani AR.2004. “Genomic and non-genomic effects of estrogens on endothelial cells”. Steroids 69(8-9):537-542.

Smith CL.1998.”Cross-talk between peptide growth factor and estrogen receptor signaling pathways”. Biol Reprod 58:627-632.
Stein B, Yang MX.1995.”Repression of the interleukin-6 promoter by estrogen receptor is mediated by NF-kappa B and C/EBP beta”. Molec Cell Biol 15:4971-4979.
Teyssier C, Belguise K, Galtier F, Chalbos D.2001.”Characterization of the physical interaction between estrogen receptor α and jun proteins”. J Biol Chem 276:363361-36369.
Thakur MK, Sharma PK.2006.”Aging of brain: role of estrogen”. Neurochem Res 31:1389-1398.
Thakur MK.2002.”Genetic determinants of aging: prospects in the new millennium. Indian J Gerontol. 16:1-15.
Webb P, Lopez Gn, Uht RM, Kushner PJ.1995.”Tamoxifen activation of the estrogen receptor/AP-1 pathway: potential origin for the cell-specific estrogen-like effects of the anti-estrogens”. Molec Endocrinol 13:1672-1685.

Chapter 6

Colborn T, Saal FSV, Soto AM.1993. “Developmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans”. Environ Health Perspect101: 378-384.
Coster SD, Larebeke NV.2012. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: associated disorders and mechanisms of action. J Environ Public Health Article http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/713696.
Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Bourguignon JP, Giudice LC, Hauser R, Prins GS, Soto AM, Zoeller RT, Gore AC.2009. “Endocrine disrupting chemicals: an Endocrine Society scientific statement”. Endocr Rev 30:293-342.
Eriksson P, Fischer C, Fredriksson A.2006. “Poly-brominated diphenyl ethers, a group of brominated flame retardants, can interact with polychlorinated biphenyls in enhancing developmental neurobehavioral defects”. Toxicol Sci 94: 302-309.
Frye CA, Bo E, Calamandrei G, Calzà L, Dessì-Fulgheri F, Fernández M, Fusani L, Kah O, Kajta M, Le Page Y, Patisaul HB, Venerosi A, Wojtowicz AK, Panzica GC.2012.”Endocrine disrupters: a review of some sources, effects, and mechanisms of actions on behaviour and neuroendocrine systems.” J Neuroendocrinol. 24(1):144-159.

Fürst P. 2006.”Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk levels, correlations, trends and exposure through breastfeeding”. Mol Nutr Food Res 50: 922-933.
Gore AC.2007.”Endocrine disrupting chemicals: from basic research to clinical practice (contemporary endocrinology). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; ISBN 1588298302.
Hellweg S, Demou E, Bruzzi R, Meijer A, Rosenbaum RK, Huijbregts MAJ, McKone TE.2009. “Integrating human indoor air pollutant exposure within life cycle impact assessment”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43 (6), 1670-1679.
Hites RA, Foran JA, Carpenter DO, Hamilton MC, Knuth BA, Schwager SJ.2004.”Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmon”. Science 303:226-229.
Jensen S, Johnels AG, Olsson M, Otterlind G.1969. “DDT and PCB in marine animals from Swedish waters”. Nature 224: 247-250.
Kajta M, Wójtowicz AK.2013. “Impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on neural development and the onset of neurological disorders”. Pharmacol Rep. 65(6):1632-1639.
Kodavanti PR. 2006. “Neurotoxicity of persistent organic pollutants: possible mode(s) of action and further considerations”. Dose Response 3: 273-305.
Peterle TJ. 1969. “DDT in Antarctic snow”. Nature 224: 620.
Safe SH. 2000. “Endocrine disruptors and human health is there a problem? An update”. Environ Health Perspect 108: 487-493.
Schecter A, Päpke O, Tung KC, Staskal D, Birnbaum L.2004. ”Polybrominated diphenyl ethers contamination of United States food”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38 (20): 5306-5311.
Soares A, Guieysse B, Jefferson B, Cartmell E, Lester JN. 2008. “Nonylphenol in the environment: a critical review on occurrence, fate, toxicity and treatment in wastewaters”. Environ Int 34:1033-1049.
Vandenberg LN, Colborn T, Hayes TB, Heindel JJ, Jacobs DR, Lee DH, Shioda T, Soto AM, Saal FSV, Welshons WV, Zoeller RT, Myers JP. 2012. “Hormones and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: Low-dose effects and non-monotonic dose responses”. Endocr Rev. 33(3): 378-455.

Chapter 7

Aenlle KK, Kumar A, Cui Li, Jackson TC, Foster TC.2009. “Estrogen effects on cognition and hippocampal transcription in middle aged mice”.
Neurobiol Aging 30:932-945.
Arthur DB, Akassoglou K, Insel PA.2005.”P2Y2 receptor activates nerve growth factor TrkA signaling to enhance neuronal differentiation”. Proc Natl Acad Sci 102:19138-19143.
Brann DW, Dhandapandi KM, Wakade C, Mahesh, VB, Khan MM.2007.”Neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions of estrogen: basic mechanisms and clinical implications”. Steroids 72: 381-405.
Behl C. 2002.”Estrogen can protect neurons: modes of action”. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 83:195-197.
Berno V, Amazit L, Hinojos C, Zhong J, Mancini MG, Dave Z, Michael S, Mancini A. 2008. “Activation of estrogen receptor α by E2 or EGF induces temporally distinct patterns of large-scale chromatin modification and mRNA transcription”. PLoS ONE 3:e22863.
Beyer C.1999. “Estrogen and the developing mammalian brain”. Anat Embryol 199:379-390.
Bishop AL, Hall A.2000. “Rho GTPases and their effector proteins”. Biochemical J 2:241-255.
Bode FJ, Stephan M, Suhling H, Pabst R, Rainer HS, Raber KA, Bonin M, Nguyen HP, Riess O, Bauer A, Sjoberg C, Petersen C, Horsten von S. 2008.”Sex differences in a transgenic rat model of Huntington's disease: decreased 17β-estradiol levels correlate with reduced numbers of DARPP32+ neurons in males”. Human Molec Genetics 17: 2595-2609.
Bruce-Keller AJ, Keeling JL, Keller JN, Huang FF, Camondola S, Mattson AP.2000. “Antiflammatory effects of estrogen on microglial activation”. Endocrinology 141:3646-3656.
Di Paolo T, Falardeau P.1994.”Modulation of brain and pituitary dopamine receptors by estrogens and prolactin”. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychia 9:473-480.
Ferreira A, Caceres A.1991.”Estrogen-enhanced neurite growth: Evidence for a selective induction of tau and stable microtubules”. J Neurosci 11:393-400.
Gandy SE. 2003. “Estrogen and neurodegeneration”. Neurochem Res 28: 1003-1008.
Gould E, Wolley CS, Franfurt M, McEwen BS.1990.”Gonadal steroids regulate dendritic spine density in hippocampal pyramidal cells in adulthood”. J Neurosci 10:1286-1291.
Groeneveld GL, Van Muiswinkel FL, Sturkenboom JM, Wokke JH, Bär PR, Van den Berg LH. 2004.”Ovariectomy and 17β-estradiol modulate disease progression of a mouse model of ALS”. Brain Res 1021:128-131.
Heldring N, Pike A, Andersson S, Matthews J, Cheng G, Hartman J, Tujague M, Ström A, Treuter E, Warner M, Gustafsson JA.2007 “Estrogen receptors: How do they signal and what are their targets”. Physiol Rev 87:905-931.
Li R, Shen Y, Yang LB, Lue LF, Finch C, Rogers J.2000. “Estrogen enhances uptake of amyloid beta-protein by microglia derived from human cortex”. J Neurochem 75:1447-1454.
Imwalle DB, Gustafsson JA, Rissman EF.2005.”Lack of functional estrogen receptor alpha influences anxiety behavior and serotonin content in female mice”. Physiol Behav 84:157-163.
Ivanova T, Mendez P, Garcia-Segura LM, Beyer C.2002. Rapid stimulation of the PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in developing midbrain neurons by estrogen”. J Neuroendocrinol 14:73-79.
Jaffe AB, Toran-Allerand CD, Greengard P, Gandy SE.1994.”Estrogen regulates metabolism of Alzheimer amyloid beta precursor protein”. J Biol Chem 269: 13065-13068.
Kajta M, Beyer C.2003.”Cellular strategies of estrogen-mediated neuroprotection during brain development”. Endocrine 21:3-9.
Rubinsztein DC.2006.”The roles of intracellular protein-degradation pathways in neurodegeneration”. Nature 443 (7113): 780-786.
Saunders-Pullman R, Gordon-Elliott J, Parides M, Fahn S, Saunders HR, Bressman S.1999.”The effect of estrogen replacement on early Parkinson’s disease”. Neurology 52:1417-1417.
Simpkins JW, Singh M, Bishop J.1994.”The potential role of estrogen replacement therapy in the treatment of cognitive decline and neurodegeneration associated with Alzheimer’s disease”. Neurobiol Aging 15:195-197.
Thakur MK, Sharma PK. 2006.”Aging of brain: role of estrogen.” Neurochem res 31 (11): 1389-1398.
Wise PM, Dubal DB, Wilson ME, Rau SW, Bottner M, Rosewell KL.2001.”Estradiol is as protective factor in the adult and aging brain: understanding the mechanisms derived from in vivo and vitro studies”. Brain Res Rev 37:313-319.
Woolley CS, Weiland NG, McEwen BS, Schwartzkroin PA.1997. Estradiol increases the sensitivity of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells to NMDA receptor mediated synaptic input: correlation with dendritic spine density. J Neurosci 17:1848-1859.
Yi KD, Cai ZY, Covey DF, Simpkins JW. 2008. “Estrogen receptor-independent neuroprotection via protein phosphatase preservation and attenuation of persistent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation”. J Pharmacol Exper Therap 324:1188-1195.

Chapter 8

Adams MM, Shah R, William A, Janssen GM, Morrisson JH.2001.”Different modes of hippocampal plasticity in response to estrogen in young and aged female rats”. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:8071-8076.
Adams MM, Shah R, William A, Janssen GM, Morrisson JH.2001.”Different modes of hippocampal plasticity in response to estrogen in young and aged female rats”. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:8071-8076.
Anderton BH. 2002.”Ageing of the brain”. Mechanism Age Dev 123:7811-7817.
Arachiche A, Olivier A, Decossas M, Pertuiset C, Gontier E, Letellier T, Dachary-Prigent J.2008.”Localization of PTP-1B, SHP-2, and Src exclusively in rat brain mitochondria and functional consequences”. J Biol Chem 283: 24406-24411.
Arai H, Ozaki T, Niizuma H, Nakamura Y, Ohira M, Takano K, Matsumoto M, Nakagawara A.2008.”ERAP140/Nbla10993 is a novel favorable prognostic indicator for neuroblastoma induced in response to retinoic acid”. Oncol Reports 19:1381-1388.
Bai L, Hof PR, Standaert DG, Xing Y, Nelson SE, Young AB, Magnusson KR.2004. “Changes in the expression of the NR2B subunit during aging in macaque monkeys”. Neurobiol Aging 5:201-208.
Benitah SA. 2001.”Intracellular signaling pathways and carcinogenesis”. Clin Transl Oncol 3: 274-278.
Blouin K, Despre JP, Couillard C, Tremblay A, Homme DP, Bouchard C, Tchernof A.2005. “Contribution of age and declining androgen levels to features of the metabolic syndrome in men”. Metabol Clin Experimental 54:1034-1040.
Brody H.1955.” Organization of the cerebral cortex III: A study of aging in the human cerebral cortex”. J Comp Neurol 102:511-556.
Brown TJ, MacLusky NJ, Shanabrough M, Naftolin F.1990.”Comparison of age and sex related changes of in cell nuclear estrogen binding capacity and progestin receptor induction in the rat brain”. Endocrinology 126:2965-2972.
Burke SN, Barnes CA.2006.”Neural plasticity in the aging brain”. Nature Neurosci.7:30-40.
Cardona-Gomez GP, Mendez P, DonCarlos LL, Azcoitia I, Garcia Segura LM.2001. “Interactions of estrogens and insulin-like growth factor-I in the brain: implications for neuroprotection”. Brain Res Rev 37:320-334.
Chakraborty TR, Ng L, Gore AC.2003.”Co-localization of hormone regulation of estrogen receptor α and NMDA receptor in the hypothalamus of female rats”. Endocrinology 144:299-305.
Chakraborty TR, Ng L, Gore AC.2003.”Age related changes in estrogen receptor β in rat hypothalamus: A quantitative analysis”. Endocrinology 144:4164-4171.
Charalampopoulos I, Alexei VI, Tsatsanis CVM, Dermitzaki E, Lasaridis I, Varddouli L, Christosusatournaras ANM, Castanas E, Gravanis A.2006.”Neurosteroids as endogenous inhibitors of neuronal cell apoptosis in Aging”. Anal New York Acad Sci 1088:139

Chu I, Arnaout A, Loiseau S, Sun J, Seth A, McMahon C, Chun K, Hennessy B, Mills GB, Nawaz Z, Slingerland JM.2007.”Src promotes estrogen-dependent estrogen receptor α proteolysis in human breast cancer”. J Clin Invest 117:2205

Coleman PD, Flood DG. 1987. “Neuron numbers and dendritic extent in normal aging and Alzheimer’s diseases”. Neurobiol Aging 8:521-545.
Cummings BJ, Satou T, Head E, Milgram NW, Cole GM, Savage MJ, Podlisny MB, Selkoe DJ, Siman R, Greenberg BD, Cotman CW.1996. “Diffuse plaques contain C-terminal Aβ42 and not Aβ40: evidences from cats and dogs”. Neurobiol Aging 17:653-659.
Durand M, Kolpak A, Farrell, T, Elliott NA, Shao W, Brown M, Volkert MR.2007.”The OXR domain defines a conserved family of eukaryotic oxidation resistance proteins”. BMC Cell Biol 8:1-10.
Flood DG, Buell SJ, Horwitz GJ, Coleman PD. 1987.”Dendritic extent in human dentate gyrus granule cells in normal aging and senile dementia”. Brain Res 402:205-216.
Flood DG, Guarnaccia M, Coleman PD.1987.”Dendritic extent in human CA2-3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons in normal aging and senile dementia”. Brain Res 409:88-96.
Ghosh S, Thakur MK. 2009a.”Age-dependent decrease in the interaction of beta-tubulin with estrogen receptor alpha transactivation domain in mouse brain”. Neurosci Lett 30:218-221.
Ghosh S, Thakur MK.2009b.”Interaction of estrogen receptor-alpha ligand binding domain with nuclear proteins of aging mouse brain”. J Neurosci Res 15:2591-2600.
Ghosh S, Thakur MK. 2009c.”Interaction of estrogen receptor-alpha transactivation domain with nuclear proteins of mouse brain: p68 RNA helicase shows age- and sex-specific change”. J Neurosci Res 87:1323-1328.
Halford MM, Stacker SA.2000. “Revelations of the RYK receptor V”. BioEssays 23: 34-45.
Hof PR, Morrison JH. 2004.”The aging brain: morpho molecular senescence of cortical circuits”. Trends Neurosci 27:607-613.
Hof PR, Duan H, Page TL, Einstein M, Wicinski B, He Y, Erwin JM, Morison JH.2002.”Age-related changes in GluR2 and NMDR1 glutamate receptor subunit protein immunoreactivity in corticocortically projecting neurons in macaque and patas monkeys”. Brain Res 928:175-186.
Johnson SC, Saykin AJ, Baxter LC.2000.”The relationship between fMRI activation and cerebral atrophy: comparison of normal aging and Alzheimer’s diseases”. Neuroimage 11:179-187.
Jouvenceau A, Dutar P, Billard JM.1998.”Alteration of NMDA receptor mediated synaptic responses in CA1 area of the aged rat hippocampus: contribution of GABAergic and cholinergic deficits”. Hippocampus 8:627-637.
Kanungo MS, Patnaik SK, Koul O.1975.”Decrease in 17β-estradiol receptor in brain of aging rats”. Nature 253:366-367.
Karpuzoglu E, Ahmed A. 2006.”Estrogen regulation of nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in immune cells: Implications for immunity, autoimmune diseases and apoptosis”. Nitric Oxide 15:177-186.
Lazennec G, Ediger TR, Petz LN, Nardulli AM, Katzenellenbogen BS.1997.”Mechanistic aspects of estrogen receptor activation probed with constitutively active estrogen receptors: correlations with DNA and coregulator interactions and receptor conformational changes”. Mol Endocrinol 11:1375-1386.
Lee SC, Zhao ML, Hirano A, Dickson DW.1999.”Inducible nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the Alzheimer disease hippocampus: association with Hirano bodies, neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques”. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 58:1163-1169.
Levine RL, Stadtman ER.2001.”Oxidative modifications of proteins during aging”. Exper Gerontol 36: 1495-1502.
Luebke JI, Chang YM, Moore TL, Rosene DL.2004. “Normal aging results in decreased synaptic excitation and increased synaptic inhibition of layer 2/3 pyramidal cells in the monkey prefrontal cortex”. Neuroscience 125:277-288.
Martinez R, Mathey-Prevot B, Bernards A, Baltimore D.1987. “Neuronal pp60c-src contains a six-amino acid insertion relative to its non-neuronal counterpart”. Science 237:411-415.
Massie C, Mills IG.2006. “The developing role of receptors and adaptors”. Nat Rev Cancer 6: 403-409.
Mora F, Del Arco A, Segovia G. 2003. “Glutamate-dopamine interactions in striatum and nucleus accumbens of the conscious rat during aging”. In: Gaygiel, AM (Ed), Basal Ganglia VI. Plenum Press, New York, 615-622.
Morgan JC, Majors JE, Galileo DS.2005. “Distinct and opposite roles for SH2 and SH3 domains of v-src in embryo survival and hemangiosarcoma formation”. Clin Experimen Metastas 22:167

Morrison JH, Hof PR.1997. “Life and death of neurons in the aging brain”. Science 278:412-419.
Nencini P, Inzitari D, Gibbs J, Mangiafica S.1993.”Dementia with leucoaraiosis and dural artriovenous malformation: clinical and PET case study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 56:929-931.
Omri BP, Crisanti MC, Marty F, Alliot R, Fagard TM, Pessac B.1996.”The Lck tyrosine kinase is expressed in brain neurons”. J Neurochem 67:1360-1364.
Palombi PS, Caspary DM.1996. “Physiology of aged Fischer 344 rat inferior collicus: responses to cobtralateral monaural stimuli”. J Neurophysiol 76:3114-3125.
Paramanik V, Thakur MK. 2010.”Interaction of estrogen receptor associated protein (ERAP) 140 with ER β decreases, but its expression increases in aging mouse cerebral cortex”. 30:961-966.
Paramanik V, Thakur MK. 2011. AIB1 shows variation in interaction with ERβTAD and expression as a function of age in mouse brain. Biogerontology 12:321-328.
Paramanik V, Thakur MK.2012. “Estrogen receptor β and its domains interact with casein kinase 2, phosphokinase C, and N-myristoylation sites of mitochondrial and nuclear proteins in mouse brain”. J Biol Chem 287:22305-22316.
Paramanik V, Thakur MK.2013.”Role of CREB signaling in aging brain”. Arch Ital Biol 151:33-42.
Parsons SJ, Parsons JT.2004.”Src family kinases, key regulators of signal transduction”. Oncogene 23:7906-7909.
Pekcec A, Baumgärtner W, Bankstahl JP, Stein VM, Potschka H.2008.”Effect of aging on neurogenesis in the canine brain”. Aging Cell 7:368-374.
Rubin BS, Fox TO, Bridges RS. 1986.”Estrogen binding in nuclear and cytosolic extract from brain and pituitary of middle aged female rats”. Brain Res 383:60-67.
Shao W, Halachmi S, Brown M.2002.”ERAP140, a conserved tissue-specific nuclear receptor coactivator”. Mol Cell Biol 22:3358-3372.
Sharma PK, Thakur MK.2004.”Estrogen receptor α expression in mice kidney shows sex differences during aging”. Biogerontology 5:375-381.
Sharma PK, Thakur MK.2006. “Expression of estrogen receptor (ER) α and β in mouse cerebral cortex: Effect of age, sex and gonadal steroids”. Neurobiol Aging 27:880-887.
Sharp F, Liu DZ, Zhan X, Ander BP.2008.”Intra-cerebral hemorrhage injury mechanisms: glutamate neurotoxicity, thrombin, and Src”. Acta Neurochir Suppl 105: 43-46.
Thakur MK, Paramanik V.2012.”Expression of Trk A and Src and their interaction with ERβ ligand binding domain show age and sex dependent alteration in mouse brain”. Neurochem Res 37:448-453.
Thakur MK, Sharma PK.2006.”Aging of brain: role of estrogen”. Neurochem Res 31:1389-1398.
Uneo M, Sakamoto H, Kanenishi K, Onodera M, Akiguchi I, Hosokawa M.2001.”Ultra structural and permeability features of micro-vessels in the hippocampus, cerebellum and pons of senescence-accelerated mice (SAM)”. Neurobiol Aging 22:469-478.
Wattendorff AR, Frangione B, Luyendijk W, Bots GTAM.1995.” Hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, Dutch type (HCHWA-D) clinicopathological studies”. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 58:699-705.
Wightman RM, Haynes CL.2004.”Synaptic vesicles really do kiss-and-run”. Nat Neurosci 7: 321

Wilson ME, Rosewell KL, Kashon ML, Shughrue PJ, Merchenthaler I, Wise PM. 2002. “Age differentially influences estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ gene expression in specific regions of the rat brain”. Mechanism Age Dev 123:593-601.
Wise PM, Camp P.1984. “Changes in concentration of estradiol nuclear receptors in preoptic area, medial basal hypothalamus, amygdala and pituitary gland of middle-aged and old cycling rats”. Endocrinology 114:92-98.
Wong TK.2002.”Aging of cerebral cortex”. McGill J Med 6:104-113.
Wong YG, Berson DM.2007.”The retina-attached SCN slice preparation: An in vitro mammalian circadian visual system”. J Biol Rhyth 22:400-410.
Woolley CS.1998. Estrogen mediated structural and functional synaptic plasticity in the female rat hippocampus. Horm Behav 34:140-148.
Xu M, Shibayama, Kobayashi H, Yamada K, Ishihara R, Zhao P, Takeuchi T, Yoshida K, Inagaki T, Nokura K. 1992. “Granulovascular degeneration in the hippocampul cortex of aging and demented patients-a quantitative study”. Acta Neuropathol (Berlin) 85:1-9.
Zhang YW, Xu H.2007.”Alteration of β-secretase traffic by the receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway–a new mechanism for regulating Alzheimer's β-amyloid production”. Cell Res 17:385-386.

The present book attracts researchers in the field of neurobiology and receptor biology. Further, it is capable to bring attention from graduate and master students along with teachers as reference book.

You have not viewed any product yet.