A Guide to Introductory Nematology

Seenivasan Nagachandrabose
Department of Nematology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tamil Nadu, India

Richard Baidoo
Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, USA

Series: Insects and Other Terrestrial Arthropods: Biology, Chemistry and Behavior
BISAC: TEC003090

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This book is designed for undergraduate agricultural science students, farmers and farm extension personnel to provide a comprehensive description of plant-parasitic nematodes. It is contructed with 16 different chapters comprising of: an introduction; a brief history of plant nematology; the economic importance of nematodes; general characteristics of a plant-parasitic neamtode; general morphology of nematodes; the anatomy of nematodes; the general life cycle biology of plant-parasitic nematodes; taxonomy/systematics/classification of major plant-parasitic nematodes; classification of nematodes based on feeding habits; identification keys for major plant-parasitic nematodes; damage symptoms caused by the nematodes; interaction of nematodes with other microbial pathogens; different methods of nematode control; prominent nematode resistant crop cultivars; the concept of integrated nematode management; nematode parasites of important agricultural and horticultural crops with their management practices; and fundamental nematological techniques. The introduction covers the definition of nematodes, history of nematology, the yield loss caused by nematodes, some important animal parasitic nematodes, and beneficial nematodes including nematodes used in insect control, weed control, and biological monitoring systems. The morphology and anatomy of nematodes are simply explained with detailed diagrams. The taxonomy classification structure based on evolutionary concepts are provided with major differentiation characteristics between important groups. The life cycle of different feeding groups of plant-parasitic nematodes is illustrated with simple illustrations. Identification keys and symptoms of nematode damage are described with suitable images. Overall, nematode control techniques available in literature are summerised briefly with suitable photographs wherever needed. The nematode pests, their symptoms and specific control measures for major agro-horticultural crops like rice, wheat, cotton, pulses, groundnuts, vegetables, potatos, bananas, citrus, grapevines, spices, medicinal plants and flower crops are discussed. The final chaper of this book presents some basic nematode techniques, including nematode extraction protocols, nematode fixing, and mounting techniques. Overall, this fundamental and easy-to-understand book will be particularly useful for students in the biological and agricultural sciences, agronomists, agricultural extension workers and farmers to enable them to gain more insight and equip them with knowledge to solve problems concerning nematodes. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

About the Authors

Chapter 1. History of Phytonematology: Economic Importance (pp. 1-14)

Chapter 2. General Characteristics of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes (pp. 15-20)

Chapter 3. Nematode General Morphology (pp. 21-36)

Chapter 4. Anatomy of Nematodes (pp. 37-60)

Chapter 5. General Life Cycle Biology of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes (pp. 61-74)

Chapter 6. Taxonomy, Systematics and Classification of Major Plant-Parasitic Nematodes (pp. 75-84)

Chapter 7. Classification of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes by Habitat (pp. 85-90)

Chapter 8. Identification of Economically Important Plant-Nematodes (pp. 91-104)

Chapter 9. Symptoms Caused by Nematodes (pp. 105-118)

Chapter 10. Interaction of Nematodes with Plant Pathogens (pp. 119-126)

Chapter 11. Nematode Management Methods (pp. 127-152)

Chapter 12. Nematode Resistant Varieties (pp. 153-156)

Chapter 13. Integrated Nematode Management (pp. 157-164)

Chapter 14. Nematode Parasites of Important Agricultural Crops and their Management (pp. 165-176)

Chapter 15. Nematode Parasites of Important Horticultural Crops and their Management (pp. 177-188)

Chapter 16. Nematode Techniques (pp. 189-208)

References (pp. 209-216)

Index (pp. 217)

Baidoo, R., Joseph, S., Mengistu, T. M., Brito, J. A., McSorley, R., Stamps, R. H., & Crow, W. T. (2016). Mitochondrial Haplotype-based Identification of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on Cut Foliage Crops in Florida. Journal of nematology, 48(3), 193.
Baidoo, R., Mengistu, T. M., Brito, J. A., & Crow, W. T. (2012). Molecular diagnostics of root-knot nematodes on Pittosporum tobira in Florida. Journal of Nematology, 44, (4): 450-450).
Baidoo, R., Stamps, R. H., & Crow, W. T. (2013). Management of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on Pittosporum tobira in Florida. Journal of Nematology, 45 (4): 281-282.
Baidoo, R., Yan, G., Nagachandrabose, S., & Skantar, A. M. (2017). Developing a Real-Time PCR Assay for Direct Identification and Quantification of Pratylenchus penetrans in Soil. Plant Disease. doi: https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-17-0117-RE.
Baidoo, R., Yan, G., Nelson, B., Skantar, A. M., & Chen, S. (2017). Use of chemical flocculation and nested PCR for Heterodera glycines detection in DNA extracts from field soils with low population densities. Plant Disease, PDIS-08.
Das, S. C., Balamohan, T. N., Poornima, K., & Seenivasan, N. (2013). Screening of Musa hybrids for resistance to Pratylenchus coffeae. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 70(3), 350-356.
Das, S. C., Balamohan, T. N., Poornima, K., Seenivasan, N., Velalazan, R., Van den Bergh, I., & De Waele, D. (2012, January). Screening of banana hybrids (phase II hybrids) for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita. Acta Horticulturae, 1026, 29-36.
Das, S.C., Balamohan, T.N., Poornima, K., Seenivasan, N., Velalazan, R. Van den Bergh, I., & De Waele, D. 2012. Screening of banana hybrids (phase II hybrids) for resistance to Helicotylenchus multicinctus. Acta Horticulturae, 1026, 37-45.
Das, S.C., Balamohan, T.N., Poornima, K., Seenivasan, N., Van Den Bergh, I., & De Waele, D. (2010). Reaction of Musa hybrids to the burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis. Indian Journal of Nematology, 40(2), 189-197.
Das, S.C., Balamohan, T.N., Poornima, K., Velalazan, R., & Seenivasan, N. (2014). Breeding and evaluation of Musa hybrids to the spiral nematode, Helicotylenchus multicinctus. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 74(1), 56-63.
Das, S.C., Balamohan, T.N., Poornima, K., Velalazan, R., & Seenivasan, N. (2011). Screening of banana hybrids for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita. Indian Journal of Nematology, 41(2), 189-196.
Das, S.C., Balamohan, T.N., Poornima, K., Velalazan, R., Seenivasan, N., Van Den Bergh, I., & De Waele, D. (2014). Screening of Banana Hybrids (Phase II) Resistant to Helicotylenchus multicinctus. Indian Journal of Nematology, 44(1), 9-16.
Das, S.C., Balamohan, T.N., Poornima, K., Velalazan, R., Seenivasan, N., & Van den Bergh, I. (2013). Reaction of Banana hybrids (Phase-II) for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment & Biotechnology, 6(4), 557-563.
Das, S.C., Balamohan, T.N., Poornima, K., Velalazhan, R., & Seenivasan, N. (2014). Reaction of Musa hybrids to Fusarium wilt and Radopholus similis, burrowing nematode complex. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 71(1), 16-22.
Devrajan, K., & Seenivasan, N. (2002). Biochemical changes in banana roots due to Meloidogyne incognita infected with Paecilomyces lilacinus. Current Nematology, 13, 1-5.
Devrajan, K., Prabhu, S., Seenivasan, N., Sudha, A., Ramakrishnan, S., & Anita, B. (2011). Occurrence of native microbial antagonists against potato cyst nematodes in the Nilgiri hills of Tamil Nadu. Potato Journal, 38(1), 67-72.
Devrajan, K., Rajendran, G., & Seenivasan, N. (2003). Nutrient status and photosynthetic efficiency of banana (Musa sp.) influenced by Meloidogyne incognita infected with Pasteuria penetrans. Nematologia Mediterranea, 31, 197-200.
Devrajan, K., Seenivasan, N., Jonathan, E.I., & Prabhu, S. (2012). Nematode infestation in potato. In: Nematode infestations – Part III: Horticultural Crops (Eds: Mujeebur Rahman Khan and M. Shamim Jairajpuri). The National Academy of Sciences, India. pp 693.
Devrajan, K., Seenivasan, N., & Selvaraj, N. (2003). Bio-management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Indian Journal of Nematology, 33(1), 6-8.
Devrajan, K., Seenivasan, N., Rajendran, G., & Nirmal Johnson, S.B. (2004). Seasonal fluctuation of Pratylenchus coffeae and Helicotylenchus multicinctus. Madras Agricultural Journal, 91: 336-338.
Devrajan, K., Seenivasan, N., Selvaraj, N., & Rajendran, G. (2004). An integrated approach for the management of potato cyst nematodes, Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida in India. Nematologia Mediterranea, 32, 67-70.
Jonathan, E.I., Seenivasan, N., Manoranjitham, S.K., Kavino, M., & Sridharan, S. (2011). Pests of banana. Directorate of Centre for Plant Protection Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,
Kumar, M., Balamohan, T. N., Jeyakumar, P., & Seenivasan, N. (2014). Population dynamics of banana nematodes as influenced by weather parameters correlation studies for nematode population in banana. Current Nematology, 25, 51-55.
Kumar, M., Balamohan, T., Jeyakumar, P., & Seenivasan, N. (2015). Correlation and regression studies on weather variables on sigatoka leaf spot in banana cv Grand Naine. International Journal of Farm Sciences, 5(4), 229-235.
Nair, M.G., Seenivasan, N., Liu, Y., Feick, R.M., & Melakeberhan, H. (2015). Leaf constituents of Curcuma spp. suppress Meloidogyne hapla and increase bacterial-feeding nematodes. Nematology, 17(3), 353-361.
Parvatha Reddy, P. (1983). Plant Nematology. India: Agricole Publication Academy. pp. 287.
Perry, R. N., & Moens, M. (Eds.). (2013). Plant nematology. CABI publications, London, UK.
Ravichandra, N.G. (2014). Horticultural nematology (Vol. 3). New Dehli: Springer. pp. 412.
Sakthi, E., Seenivasan, N., Devrajan, K., & Selvaraj, N. 2003. Bio-efficacy of new insecticides against cabbage diamond back moth Plutella xylostella. Pestology, 28, 35-37.
Seenivasan, N. (1998).Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Migula) on rice root nematode, Hirschmanniella gracilis (De, Man, 1880) Luc and Goodey, 1963 in rice cv. ADT 36 (Oryza sativa L.). (M.Sc. Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University; Coimbatore).
Seenivasan, N. (2001).Management of reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford and Oliveira, 1940 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Atk.) Snyder and Hansen disease complex on cotton with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae. (Doctoral dissertation, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University; Coimbatore).
Seenivasan, N. (2010). Association of phytonematodes and their pathogenicity on jasmine. Journal of Ornamental Horticulture, 13(3), 212-215.
Seenivasan, N. (2010). Bio-intensive management of Meloidogyne incognita and Macrophomina phaseolina disease complex in medicinal coleus. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 38(2), 186-192.
Seenivasan, N. (2010). Management of Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita with organic amendments in medicinal Coleus. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 18(2), 472-476.
Seenivasan, N. (2011). Bioefficacy of anti-nemic plants against root-knot nematode in medicinal coleus. Journal of Ecofriendly Agriculture, 6, 92-96.
Seenivasan, N. (2011). Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Paecilomyces lilacinus against Meloidogyne graminicola infecting rice under system of rice intensification. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 44(15), 1467-1482.
Seenivasan, N. (2017). Identification of burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis) resistance in banana (Musa spp) genotypes for natural and challenge inoculated populations. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 50(9-10), 415-437.
Seenivasan, N. (2017). Management of Radopholus similis and Helicotylenchus multicinctus in ratoon banana grown under high-density planting systems. International Journal of Fruit Science, 17(1), 41-62.
Seenivasan, N., & Devrajan, K. (2002). Biocontrol potential of Pseudomonas fluorescens against rice root nematode, Hirschmanniella gracilis on rice. Current Nematology, 13, 35-38.
Seenivasan, N., & Devrajan, K. (2007). Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with medicinal coleus (Coleus forskohlii) in Tamil Nadu, India. Indian Journal of Nematology, 37(2), 199-201.
Seenivasan, N., & Devrajan, K. (2008). Bio-efficacy of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus mosseae against reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton. Journal of Cotton Research and Development, 22(2), 229-233.
Seenivasan, N., & Devrajan, K. (2008). Integrated approach for the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in medicinal coleus. Indian Journal of Nematology, 38(2), 154-158.
Seenivasan, N., & Devrajan, K. (2008). Management of Meloidogyne incognita on medicinal coleus by commercial biocontrol formulations. Nematologia Mediterranea, 36, 61-67.
Seenivasan, N., & Murugan, V. T. (2011). Optimization of delivery methods for Pseudomonas fluorescens in management of rice root nematode, Hirschmanniella gracilis. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 19(1), 188-192.
Seenivasan, N., & Murugan, V.T. (2011). Bio-management of reniform nematode-fusarium wilt disease complex in cotton. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment, 8(1), 90-96.
Seenivasan, N., & Poornima, K. (2010). Bio-management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood in jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.). Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 16(1), 34-40.
Seenivasan, N., & Senthilnathan, S. (2017). Effect of humic acid on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood infecting banana (Musa spp.).International Journal of Pest Management, 1-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09670874.2017.1344743.
Seenivasan, N., & Sivakumar, M. (2014). Screening for environmental stress-tolerant entomopathogenic nematodes virulent against cotton bollworms. Phytoparasitica, 42(2), 165-177.
Seenivasan, N., & Sundarababu, R. (2007). Management of Rotylenchulus reniformis with bio-control agents in cotton. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 15(2), 454-457.
Seenivasan, N., David, P.M.M., & Vivekanandan, P. (2010). Population dynamics of rice nematodes under a system of rice intensification. Nematologia Mediterranea, 38(2), 159-163.
Seenivasan, N., David, P.M.M., Vivekanandan, P., & Samiyappan, R. (2012). Biological control of rice root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola through mixture of Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 22(6), 611-632.
Seenivasan, N., Devrajan, K., & Selvaraj, N. (2007). Management of potato cyst nematodes, Globodera spp. through biological control. Indian Journal of Nematology, 37(1), 27-29.
Seenivasan, N., Devrajan, K., Nirmal Johnson S.B., & Rajendran, G. (2004). Influence of different VAM fungi on cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) infested with reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis. Madras Agricultural Journal, 91, 332-335.
Seenivasan, N., Manoranjitham, S.K., Auxilia, J., & Soorianathasundaram, K. (2013). Management of nematodes in banana through bio-rationale approaches. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 19(1), 38-44.
Seenivasan, N., Parameswaran, S., Sridar, P., Gopalakrishnan, C., & Gnanamurthy, P. (2001). Application of bioagents and neem cake as soil application for the management of root-knot nematode in turmeric. In National Congress on Centenary of Nematology in India–Appraisal & Future Plans, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (Vol. 164).
Seenivasan, N., Prabhu, S., Makesh, S., & Sivakumar, M. (2012). Natural occurrence of entomopathogenic nematode species (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) in cotton fields of Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Natural History, 46, 2829-2843.
Seenivasan, N., Rajeswari sundarababu, Devrajan, K., & Rajendran, G. (2003). Influence of VAM fungi on cotton infested with reniform nematode. Indian Journal of Nematology, 33(1): 52-55.
Seenivasan, N., Sundarababu, R., Sankar, V., & Sathiyamurthy, V. A. (1999). Nematode Management in Black Pepper. Planters Chronicle, 557-560.
Seenivasn, N., & Lakshmanan, PL. (2002).Biocontrol potential of native isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens against rice root nematode, Hirschmanniella gracilis. Journal of Ecobiology, 15(2), 69-72.
Seenivasn, N., & Lakshmanan, PL. (2002).Community analysis of nematodes in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu. Journal of Ecobiology, 15(2), 155-157.
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Selvaraj, N., Sakthi, E., Thirumal Murugan, V., Palanna, K. B., Seenivasan, N., & Ramaraj, B. (2003). Effect of organic farming on growth and yield of gerbera cv. Ruby Red. In Natl. Symp. Recent Adv. Indian Floriculture (p. 52).
Selvaraj, S., Ganeshamoorthi, P., Anand, T., Raguchander, T., Seenivasan, N., & Samiyappan, R. (2014). Evaluation of a liquid formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense and Helicotylenchus multicinctus in banana plantation. Bio Control, 59(3), 345-355.
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Sreenivasan, N., Sridhar, R. P., & Gunamurthy, P. (2003). Efficacy of some plant extracts against Plutella xylostella L. on cabbage. South India Horticulture, 51(1/6), 183-5.
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Srinivasan, N., Sundarababu, T. R., Sathiyamurthy, V. A., & Sankar, V. (2000). Root knot disease melady in cardamom. Planters’ Chronicle, 96(3).
Surya Prabha, D., & Satheesh Kumar, J. (2015). Assessment of banana fruit maturity by image processing technique. Journal of food science and technology, 52(3), 1316-1327.
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