A Complete Perspective of Nuclear Energy


Jason Chao, PhD (Author) – Nuclear Engineering and Design, Elsevier, Nuclear Resilience Group, Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA

Series: Nuclear Materials and Disaster Research
BISAC: TEC028000

All the relevant subjects on nuclear power are explained in plain language to provide an across-the-board perspective on this interesting topic. Examples are designed to make the strenuous and challenging concepts easy to understand. All the topics of nuclear power are included: nuclear safety, nuclear waste, nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants, nuclear accidents, nuclear rockets, nuclear fusion, nuclear medicine, nuclear vaccines, proliferation, and some light versions of nuclear physics and nuclear fuels.

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Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1 Purpose of this Book
1.2 No Science or Engineering Background Necessary
1.3 All Subjects on Nuclear Power Are Included

Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Nuclear Reactor Physics
2.0 Brief Introduction
2.1 Nuclear Physics
2.1.1 Chemical Reactions and Electrons
2.1.2 Nuclear Reactions and Neutrons
2.1.3 Where Do Neutrons Come From?
2.1.4 A 3D Periodic Table
2.1.5 Nucleus Models
2.1.6 Nature of Nuclear Reactions
2.1.7 Different Nuclear Reactions
2.1.8 Nuclear Reactor Physics
2.1.9 Energy Distribution in a Nuclear Reactor
2.1.10 Nuclear Reactions with a Neutron
2.1.11 Elastic Scattering
2.1.12 Inelastic Scattering
2.1.13 Complete Absorption
2.1.14 Nuclear Fission
2.1.15 Physics for Fission
2.1.16 Conservation of Atomic Number
2.1.17 What Are Fission Reactions?
2.1.18 Where Does Nuclear Energy Come From?
2.1.19 Efficiency of Fission
2.1.20 Fast Neutrons and Slow Neutrons
2.1.21 Benefits of Fast Neutron
2.1.22 Disadvantages of Fast Neutrons
2.1.23 Role of Slow Neutrons
2.2 Nuclear Fusion
2.2.1 Nuclear Fusion Reactions
2.2.2 Nuclear Fusion is Attractive
2.2.3 Problems Fusion Faces
2.2.4 Status of Fusion
2.2.5 Efficiency of Fusion
2.3 Nuclear Reactor Physics
2.3.1 Critical Mathematical Model Explained without Equations
2.3.2 Supercritical
2.3.3 Distinguishing the Critical and Supercritical
2.3.4 Subcritical

Chapter 3. Nuclear Power Plant Technology
3.0 A Brief Introduction
3.1 Fast and Slow Neutrons Play Different Roles
3.2 Operating Reactor Types
3.2.1 Pressurized Water Reactor PWR
3.2.2 Boiling Water Reactor BWR
3.2.3 Heavy Water Reactor PHWR
3.2.4 High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor HTGR
3.2.5 Graphite Moderated Reactor
3.2.6 Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor LMFR
3.3 Nuclear Power Reactors of the Next Generation
3.3.1 Molten Salt Reactor MSR
3.3.2 Small Modular Reactor SMR
3.3.3 Traveling Wave Reactor TWR

Chapter 4. Nuclear Safety
4.0 A Brief Introduction
4.1 The Nature of Nuclear Safety
4.2 The Two Themes
4.2.1 Safety Related Physical Phenomena Moderator Temperature Coefficient Natural Circulation
4.2.2 Incidences of Radiation Overdose Criticality Accidents Accidents by Misplaced Radioactive Isotopes
4.3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment
4.3.1 The Story of Two Identical Nuclear Units
4.3.2 Four Engines or Two Engines Safer on an Airplane?
4.3.3 It is Not About Gambling It Is Not About Gambler’s Luck Risk Probability is an Index Probabilistic Risk Assessment Used as a Licensing Tool Fukushima Plant Did Not Survive Tsunami But Onagawa Did
4.4 Quality Assurance and ISO
4.4.1 Independent Verification and Proper Framework
4.5 Safety Culture
4.5.1 Human Factor
4.5.2 How to Validate a Safety Culture?
4.6. The Next Nuclear Accident
4.6.1 The Causes of the Chernobyl Accident
4.6.2 Where is the Next Nuclear Disaster
4.7 How to Achieve Nuclear Safety

Chapter 5. Nuclear Fuel
5.0 A Brief Introduction
5.1 What is Nuclear Fuel?
5.2 Where Does Nuclear Fuel Come From?
5.2.1 Where Does Uranium 235 Come From?
5.2.2 Where Does Plutonium 239 Come From?
5.2.3 Thorium 232 and Uranium 232
5.3 Nuclear Fuel in Different Forms
5.3.1 Nuclear Fuel Rods for Commercial Use
5.3.2 Nuclear Fuels for Research Reactors TRIGA Uranium Aluminide Uranium Silicide for Plate Fuels
5.4 New Fuel Types
5.4.1 TRISO is Ready for Commercialization
5.4.2 MOX Fuel is a Mixture of Plutonium and Uranium
5.4.3 Accident Tolerant Fuels ATFs
5.4.4 High Assay Low Enrichment Uranium HALEU
5.4.5 Metal Fuels
5.4.6 Inert Matrix Fuel

Chapter 6. Nuclear Waste
6.0 A Brief Introduction
6.1 What is Nuclear Waste?
6.2 How are Nuclear Wastes Generated?
6.2.1 Radioisotopes for Industrial Applications
6.2.2 Radioisotopes for Medical Use
6.2.3 Nuclear Fuels for Power Generation
6.2.4 Nuclear Waste Generated by Nuclear Reactions
6.3 How to Classify Nuclear Waste?
6.4 How to Manage Low and Mid-level Nuclear Waste?
6.5 Management of High Level Nuclear Waste?
6.5.1 Nuclear Transmutation to Eliminate Nuclear Waste Fast Reactors Breeding Reactors and Incinerating Reactors Traveling Wave Reactors Burn Wastes along the Way Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor
6.5.2 Geological Repository Geographical Considerations Geological Requirements Waste Vitrification Immobilization with Glasses Phosphate Ceramics Ion Exchange and Cementing for Solidification Synthetic Rock or SynRoc Countries that Adopted Geological Repository
6.5.3 Reprocessing Reprocessing Methods PUREX Chemical Separation UREX Uranium Reduction Extraction Pyroprocessing Physics Method by High Temperature Electrolysis Fuel Cycle and Reprocessing Merits of Reprocessing Countries that Reprocessed
6.6. Nuclear Waste and Nuclear Weapons
6.7 Relevant Considerations for Waste Management
6.7.1 Economic Considerations
6.7.2 Administrative Considerations
6.7.3 Political Considerations

Chapter 7. Nuclear Proliferation
7.0 A Brief Introduction
7.1 International Atomic Energy Agency
7.1.1 IAEA Charter
7.1.2 IAEA Mission
7.1.3 Tasks
7.1.4 Inspection of Nuclear Installations Worldwide
7.1.5 On site work
7.1.6 Off site work
7.1.7 Techniques for Detection of Weapons Materials Gamma Energy Spectrum Probe Samples of Common Forms Probe Samples in Liquid Forms Neutron Coincidence Method
7.2 Countries that Pursued Nuclear Weapons
7.2.1 Libya
7.2.2 South Africa
7.2.3 Brazil and Argentina
7.2.4 Kazakhstan
7.2.5 Taiwan
7.2.6 North Korea
7.2.7 Iran
7.3. Reduce Enrichment Research and Test Reactors
7.3.1 Background
7.3.2 Principles
7.3.3 Mission
7.4 Epilogue

Chapter 8. Radiation and Health
8.0 History of Radiation
8.1 Revolutionary New Thinking
8.2 Radiation Dose
8.3 Measurement of Radiation Dosage
8.4 Basis for Dose Safety Limits
8.4.1 Victims of World War II
8.4.2 Criticality Accidents at the Los Alamos Laboratory
8.4.3 Rescuing Team Members at Chernobyl Plant
8.4.4 Current Specifications on Allowable Dose
8.5 Questioning Current Guidelines
8.5.1 Actions by US Environmental Protection Agency
8.5.2 Linear Non-Threshold Model
8.6 Health Effects of Low Dose Radiation
8.6.1 Radioactive Apartments in Taiwan
8.6.2 Treatment of COVID-19 by Radiation Radiation Treatment for Pneumonia in 1930s Radiation Treatment for COVID-19 in 2020
8.6.3 Million Person Study
8.7 What is Next

Chapter 9. New Nuclear Technologies
9.1 A Brief Introduction
9.2 Nuclear Fusion
9.2.1 Requirements for Generating Electricity
9.2.2 Research and Development for Fusion Reactor Physics of Tokamak Ignition in Tokamak Tokamak in Various Countries Superconducting Magnets Tokamaks Fueled with Deuterium and Tritium Engineering Challenges for Power Production High Hope on ITER by 35 Countries
9.2.3 Engineering Design for a Fusion Power Plant
9.2.4 Fusion Machines of Other Types Fusion by Inertial Confinement Stellarator for Fusion
9.2.5 Perspectives for Fusion
9.3 Nuclear Power by NASA
9.3.1 Used by Rovers on Mars
9.3.2 Nuclear Propulsion for Traveling to Mars
9.3.3 This is Not Cold Fusion but Lattice Confinement Fusion
9.4 Nuclear Powered Ships
9.5 Floating Nuclear Power Plants
9.6 Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Brain Tumors
9.7 Making Hydrogen by Nuclear Power

Chapter 10. Perspectives
10.0 A Complete Perspective Summarized
10.1 This Is a World of Electrons
10.2 Humans and the World of Electrons
10.3 What Is the World of Neutrons?
10.4 Humans and the World of Neutrons
10.5 What is the Next Level of Civilization?
10.5.1 Einstein Had No Clue on How to Make Nuclear Power
10.5.2 Special Black Hole Can Make High Efficiency Energy
10.6 Is Nuclear Power Safe or Not?
10.6.1 The Hardware is Reliable
10.6.2 Pay Attention to Safety Culture
10.7 Difficult to Define Nuclear Waste
10.7.1 Nuclear Waste is a Nuclear Weapon Too
10.7.2 Nuclear Recycle Psychological Nature of Fear for Radiation to Oppose Fuel Cycle Cost is Another Reason for Opposing Fuel Recycling
10.7.3 The Ultimate Nuclear Waste
10.7.4 Need a Bigger Picture Accounting System
10.7.5 Need a Department of Nuclear Waste
10.7.6 It’s Time to Make Peace with Nuclear Waste
10.8 Radiation for Immunization Too
10.8.1 Line Up for Radiation Immunization
10.8.2 Fear of Radiation is a Part of Human Nature
10.8.3 Can We Handle Fear of Radiation?
10.9 When Will We Have a Fusion Power Plant?
10.9.1 What Fusion Reactors and Fast Reactors Have in Common

Chapter 11. Conclusion


About the Author