A Closer Look at the Comet Assay

Keith H. Harmon (Editor)

Series: Biochemistry Research Trends
BISAC: SCI007000

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A Closer Look at the Comet Assay opens with a discussion on the clinical applications of comet assay. Comet assay is rapid, simple method which able to assess DNA damage in different samples like blood, cells and tissues.

Following this, the authors examine comet assay usage in occupational toxicology studies. Isolated lymphocytes were the most used cell line in these studies, but exfoliated cells such as nasal and buccal cell, liver, kidney and sperm cells may be used.

Comet assay may also be used to detect nanoparticles-associated DNA damage. As such, this compilation assesses potential limitations due to the interaction of the nanoparticles with the method.

Next, to shed light on the mechanisms of the DNA track formation, the authors apply an original approach based on the kinetic measurements in the comet assay, arguing that in neutral conditions at low levels of DNA damages, the comet tail is formed by extended DNA loops.

New applications of the comet assay are described for the detection of aberrant DNA methylation, which is a promising marker in cancer diagnosis and follow-up.

The authors go on to describe and analyse the results of in vitro treatment of lymphocytes with insecticide using comet assay under alkaline and neutral conditions, testing the commercial product Calypso® 480SC and its active agent thiacloprid at concentrations of 30; 60; 120; 240 and 480 µg.ml-1.

In one study, Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seedlings were irrigated with Hoagland solution containing different concentrations of AlCl3. Morphological parameters such as germination rate and stoma number are evaluated.

Additionally, the genotoxic effects of endosulfan pesticide at different times and in different concentrations in wheat leaf samples are analyzed in two-week old wheat seedlings in an effort to demonstrate that endosulfan is a genotoxic agent causing DNA breaks in wheat.
In the closing chapter, the correlation between the comet assay parameters, cell viability, and hydroquinone concentration is explored. The relationship between comet assay and remaining hydroquinone after fungal treatment is also investigated in order to evaluate its biodegradation efficiency.
(Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Chapter 1. Clinical Applications of Comet Assay
(Merve Bacanli, Gülhane Pharmacy Faculty Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, University of Health Sciences, Ankara, Turkey)

Chapter 2. Comet Assay in Occupational Toxicology Studies
(Hatice Gül Anlar, PhD, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey)

Chapter 3. The Comet Assay as a Tool to Detect the Genotoxic Potential of Nanomaterials
(Constanza Cortés and Ricard Marcos, Group of Mutagenesis, Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain, and others)

Chapter 4. Kinetic Approach in Comet Assay: An Opportunity to Investigate DNA Loops
(Katerina Afanasieva and Andrei Sivolob, Department of General and Medical Genetics, Taras Shevchenko National University, Kyiv, Ukraine)

Chapter 5. Evaluation of Global DNA Methylation Status of Single Cells by the Comet Assay: A Promising Approach in Cancer Diagnosis and Follow-Up
(Yıldız Dincer, PhD, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Istanbul, Turkey)

Chapter 6. Comet Assay: A Suitable Method for in Vitro Genotoxicity Assessment Using Animal Lymphocytes
(Simona Koleničová, Viera Schwarzbacherová, Beáta Holečková and Martina Galdíková, Institute of Genetics, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, Košice, Slovak Republic)

Chapter 7. Determination of Aluminum-Induced Oxidative and Genotoxic Effects in Sunflower Leaves
(Aslıhan Çetinbaş-Genç, Elif Kılıç-Çakmak, Fatma Yanık, Filiz Vardar, Ahu Altunkut-Uncuoğlu and Yıldız Aydın, Marmara University, Science and Arts Faculty, Department of Biology, Istanbul, Turkey, and others)

Chapter 8. Determination of Genotoxic Effects of Organochlorine Pesticides in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Comet Assay
(Melek Adiloğlu Öztürk and Yıldız Aydın, Marmara University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Biology, Göztepe Campus, Istanbul, Turkey)

Chapter 9. Investigation of Genotoxic Effects of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
(Tuba Akan and Yıldız Aydın, Marmara University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Biology, Göztepe Campus, Istanbul, Turkey)

Chapter 10. Genotoxicity of Hydroquinone and Fungal Detoxification: Correlation with Hydroquinone Concentration and Cell Viability
(Ana Lúcia Leitão, Departamento de Ciências e Tecnologia da Biomassa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal)

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