Stroke As a Manifestation of Target Organ Damage in Patients with Hypertension

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Authors: Nasser Ghaly Yousif, Najah R Hadi, Fadhil Alamran, MA Manal, and Ahmad Altimimi
Page Range: 251-267
Published in: World Heart Journal, 15#4 (2023)
ISSN: 1556-4002

Table of Contents

ABSTRACT

Hypertension or high blood pressure (HBP) can also affect specific organ groups, leading to target organ damage in the body [1-5]. Apart from atherosclerotic vascular diseases (AVD), including coronary artery diseases (CAD) and stroke, hypertension can also cause chronic kidney disease (CKD), retinopathy, vascular dementia, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) [1-3]. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States where hypertension is very prevalent among the working ages, accounting for 928,741 deaths in the year 2020 [4]. In 2020 in the United States, CAD was the leading cause (41.2%) of deaths followed by stroke (17.3%), other CVDs (16.8%), high blood pressure (12.9%), heart failure (HF) (9.2%) and diseases of the arteries (2.6%). The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that four out of five CVD deaths are due to heart attacks and strokes, and one third of these deaths occur prematurely in people in their working ages [6]. Hypertension is both a powerful modifiable factor and the second most powerful risk factor, after age, for stroke, regardless of where a person lives, his or her ethnicity and gender [7-10]; around 54% of strokes worldwide can be attributed to the disease. Hypertensive people are 3 to 4 times more likely to suffer a stroke than those without the disease. Identifying those at highest risk of CVDs and ensuring they receive appropriate treatment can prevent premature deaths. Increased availability of drug therapy and health education on behavioral risk factors, and basic health technologies in all primary health care centers is essential to ensure that those in need receive treatment and counselling. This review highlights the global burden, pathophysiology, and management of stroke among patients with hyper-tension.

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